Index

–A–

AA News Bulletin, 397n

Abbotts, Sgt F., 219

ABDA Command (Sketch p. 200), 201, 266, 279, 305, 341, 452, 455, 457, 462, 675

creation of, 183-4, 200-1

Supreme Commander appointed, 201-2

his directive, 646-9

organisation of, 205-6

Australian representation on, 255-6, 260

Darwin included in, 259

reinforcement of, 272, 451n

Allied strength, 442

dissolution, 456, 458, 461

Abe, Lt, 579

Aberdeen Island (Map p. 171), 173

Abyssinia, 19, 33, 79, 255

Adam Park (Sketch p. 374), 369

Adam Road (Sketch p. 360), 360-1

ADB-1 Plan, 81

Aden, 463

Adjick, 539

Adler Bay (Sketch p. 654), 661-2, 663-5

Admiralty Islands (Map p. 393), 396

Afghanistan, 31, 103

Ailed (Sketch p. 478), 479

Aircraft

Allied

number required for defence of Malaya, 18, 41

role in Malaya, 20, 47, 100

British production and distribution, 21, 43, 103

Far East requirements, 44-6, 51, 146, 286

strength in Malaya, 49-50, 77, 90, 121n, 163, losses, 141

reinforce Malaya, 169, 182, 203

strength in Philippines, 89

losses, 129

strength in Burma, 108

losses at Pearl Harbour, 127

strength and reinforcement of Java, 445, 458, 473-4, 677

Japanese

Intelligence estimates of, 58, 83, 137

strength available, 82, 115

strength in Pearl Harbour attack, 132

strength in Malaya, 134, 141

in Darwin raid, 493

Types

Albacore, 244n, 266

fluster, 604

Beaufort, 45

Blenheim, 15, 49, 50, 108, 121n, 180, 442

Boston, 673n

Brewster Buffalo, 58, 83, 108, 121n, 141n, 143, 144, 168, 244n, 289, 423

Catalina, 121n, 123, 125, 135, 399, 426

Dakota, 637

DH-86, 673n

Flying Fortress, 89, 128, 177, 444, 507

Glenn Marlin, 141n, 223

Hudson, 15, 44n, 49, 50, 121n, 122, 123, 124, 125, 137, 138, 169, 266, 398, 399, 418, 419, 422, 423, 426, 427, 468, 473

Hurricane, 169, 184, 221, 257, 289, 317, 365, 442, 499

Liberator, 606, 642

Mitchell, 673

Spartan Moth, 673n

Super Fortress, 626

Tomahawk, 108, 423

Vildebeeste, 49, 108, 121n, 122, 123, 125, 266

Walrus, 107

Wirraway, 15, 44n, 49, 398, 399, 423

Zero, 129, 137, 399, 670

Airfields, 108, 163, 168, 291, 299, 396, 446, 447, 496-7

Allied development of, 45, 48

effect army dispositions in Malaya, 107, 149, 193, 257, 342

constructed by prisoners of war in Burma and Romeo, 541-4, 593

Airkom (Sketch p. 468), 488

Air Raid Precautions, 126, 152, 287

Air Raids: Allied, on Singapore Island, 531, 532

on Thanbyuzayat, 554

on Sandakan, 600

on Ambon, 606-7

on Japan, 621-2, 624-5, 626, 629

Japanese, on Singapore, 126, 152, 287, 370-1, 372

on Penang Is, 156

on Manila, 177

on Rabaul, 398-400

on Kavieng, 412

on Ambon, 426-7

on Rangoon, 463

on Darwin, 475, 493

efficacy against ground forces, 263n

Aitken. Maj E F., 501n, 505n, 546n, 683

Aitken, Capt W., 434, 609-10

Akanobe, 622

Akeroyd, Maj J. F., 621, 660 f.n.

“Albatross” see Piesse, Maj E. L

Albatross Channel (Sketch p. 413), 412, 415

Albury, 31

Alepauk (Sketch p. 550), 546-7, 549, 555, 558

Alexander, Field Marshal Rt Hon Earl, 461, 464, 507

Alexandra Barracks (Sketch p. 374), 369

massacre at, 374

Alexandra Road (Sketch p. 360), 370, 373

Alexandra Switchline, 370

Alexandria, 24, 253, 371

Alford, Pte F. J., 480

Alice Springs, 59, 69

Allen, Maj-Gen A. S., 35, 443n, 444n, 457, 500

Allen, Lt R. W., 504, 505-6

Allied Geographical Section, 471n

Alor Star (Maps pp. 139, 158), 133, 149-50, 157

Alor Star Airfield, 121n, 125, 140, 142-3, 365

Amaabi River (Sketch p. 468), 486

Amahai (Sketch p. 439), 439

Amahusu (Sketch p. 421), 425, 429n, 430, 431-2, 434, 435

Ama Keno (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 291, 299, 309, 313-15, 316, 317n, 318-20, 322

Ambon (Ske.ch p. 421), 420, 422, 425, 428-9, 430, 437

Ambon, Bay of (Sketch p. 421), 420, 429, 435

mining of, 422, 430, 436

Ambonese, The, 428-9, 430-1, 607

Ambon Island (Map p. 393; Sketch p. 421), 184, 206, 256n, 260, 271, 284, 392, 441, 442, 451n, 466, 473, 490, 493, 494, 539

Australian reinforcement of, 59, 69, 76, 83, 130, 418, 419-20, 422-4

Japanese plans, 111, 179, 418

Allied reasons for defence of, 272

criticism of employment of Gull Force on, 419n

air raids on, 423, 426

invasion of, 427-38

escapes from 433, 438-40

prisoners of war in, 511, 593, 604-8, 633. 679

deaths, 608, 642

release and repatriation, 634, 639

Ambushes, at Gemencheh, 212-16

at Nithsdale, 266-9

in Timor, 478-9, 480

Amenities, in Malaya. 72

America, see Wakefield

America, United States Of, 5, 14, 16, 40-1, 58, 59, 73, 74, 79, 111, 122, 127, 163, 169, 176, 184, 190, 191n, 253, 287, 371, 442, 449, 507, 631, 632-3, 642, 675, 676-7

naval strength fixed at Washington Conference 1

acquires Hawaii and Philippines, 4

and Japan, 10-12, 17-18, 26, 38, 50, 93, 108-9, 132

imposes economic sanctions, 22

freezes Japanese assets, 87, 90

declares war, 130-1

collaboration with Great Britain, 12, 13, 25, 37, 39, 52-3, 54, 55, 76, 80, 91. 202, 383

accelerates defence program, 22-3, 38

leases bases in British West Indies, 39

passes Lend-Lease Act, 55

cracks Japanese diplomatic code. 56, 90-1, 95, 109

Japanese plan surprise attack, 75, 110, 131

strategy in Far East, 80-1

diverts aid to Russia, 91

and defence of Philippines, 89, 94. 391

effect of Pearl Harbour attack, 135-6

Curtin’s appeal, 182-3

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

and creation of ABDA Command, 201, 646-9

plans development of Australia as base, 441, 445, 450, 451n

American Air Forces, 205, 272, 422, 426, 440, 458n, 474, 531, 677

strength in Philippines, 89n, 177

losses, 129

losses at Pearl Harbour, 127

strength in Java, 458, 495

–American Volunteer Group, in Burma, 108

American Army, 53, 55, 90n, 206, 507

MacArthur appointed commander in Far East 88

in Philippines, 89, 205, 389-91

reinforces Australia, 256n, 446n

strength in Java, 458

–Divisions

41 Inf, 446n, 451

93 Info, 639

Philippine, 177

–Artillery: 131 Fd Regt, 495, 497, 501, 534, 536, 558

49 Arty Bn, 474

–Cavalry

26 Regt, 89n

–Infantry: 31 Regt, 89n

American Government. 54, 93, 256, 451

–Chiefs Of Staff, 76, 81, 89, 183-4, 202, 648-9

–Congress, 22, 91, 131, 136

–House Committee On Foreign Affairs, 55

–Joint Planning Committee. 54

–National Defence Research Council, 23n

–Navy Department, 55, 90n

–Standing Liaison Committee, 38-9

–State Department, 18, 90n

–War Department, 55, 446n, 633

American Navy, 24, 25, 27, 44, 75, 90n, 114, 396, 423n, 440, 446, 507, 677

strength fixed at Washington Conference, 1

role in event of war, 12, 53-4, 80

and Singapore base, 17-18, 38-9, 54, 122

expansion of, 22-3

Japanese surprise attack, 55, 108

Japanese estimate of, 80

strength at Manila, 90, 177

strength in Pacific after Pearl Harbour, 127, 145, 253

allotted to Anzac Area, 201

strength in ABDA Area, 205, 495

at Balikpapan, 416-17

off Bali, 456

–Fleets

Asiatic, 53, 80-1, 90, 122, 177

Atlantic, 80

Carrier, 440-1

Pacific, 80-1, 126-7, 131-2, 440

–Marine Corps, 23n, 128, 441

4th Regt, 89n

6th Defence Bn, 128

–Submarines, 442, 615

Americans, The, 341-2, 521-2, 587

united by Pearl Harbour attack, 136n

Ammunition

anti-aircraft, at Rabaul, 402

anti-tank, at Rabaul, 402n

field, 244, 326, 341

expenditure at Muar, 229n, 245

expenditure at Nithsdale, 268n

British expenditure on Singapore Island, 327

restrictions and shortages, 299, 300, 306, 327, 375, 377

Japanese expenditure and shortages, Singapore Island, 306, 373-4, 380

machine-gun, 311

Anambas Islands (Map p. 88), 142, 207, 305

Anarkwan (Sketch p. 550), 550. 553

Anderson, Lt-Col C. G. W., VC (Plate p. 270), 68, 70, 226, 228-9, 231, 234-5, 237-40, 242-4, 246, 248, 256, 272, 296, 298, 304, 305n, 368-9, 543, 546-7, 549, 551, 561

commands 2/19 Bn., 86

takes command at Bakri, 233

orders withdrawal, 236

orders withdrawal from Parit Sulong, 245

awarded VC, 246

General Bennett’s appraisal of, 249

Anderson, Maj R., 233, 242

Anderson, Maj R. H., 213, 218-19, 262-3, 318

Anderson, Lt S. F., 431-2, 434

Anderson, Maj-Gen W. M., 76n

Anderssen, Capt L. N., 354-5, 357

Ando, Capt, 605

Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 13

Ang Mo Kb (Map p. 344), 364, 368

Anketell, Lt-Col M. J., 258n, 363

Anti-Comintern Pact, 4

Anzac Area (Sketch p. 200), creation of 200-1

naval reinforcement of, 451n

Anzac Club, 72

Aparon, 589n

Aparri (Map p. 178), 177

Appel, Lt-Col E. S., 398n, 400-1, 406-7, 409, 653-4, 655-7, 659-60

Aquitania, British transport, 60, 258n

Arawe (Sketch, p. 658), 669

Archer, Lt J. C., 404

Arimura, Maj-Gen, 528, 530

Arita, Hachiro, 15-16, 17

Armstrong, Cpl J. H., 485

Army Quarterly, 7n, 8n

Arneil, Sgt S. F. 218n, 219n

Arnold, Lt-Col G I., 474, 491

Arthur, Sig N. J.. 529

Artillery, 86

shortages in Indian Army, 19

strength and deficiencies in Malaya, 41. 44, 49, 77, 82, 95, 102-3

Australian equipment

in Malaya, 101

in Philippines, 89-90

at Hong Kong, 107, 170-2

in Burma 108

on Singapore Island, 291-2, 295-6, 297n, 299, 300, 306, 310-11, 327, 331, 375, 379n

on Ambon, 419n, 426

Anti-aircraft

at Singapore, 106, 291, 398

in Java. 442

in Ceylon, 459

Japanese, 270n, 299, 303, 308

organisation and equipment of regiments, 115

strength available for attack on Singapore Island, 306, 327

Aru Islands (Sketch p. 439), 439-40

Ashkanasy, Lt-Col M., 86n, 305n

Asia, 13, 71, 94n, 451n

spread of communism in, 4

repatriation of prisoners from, 632-42

Asians, The, 209, 342, 382, 507, 547n. 593, 594

in Malaya, 49, 66, 157. 160, 165, 190, 287, 294, 368

relations with Australians. 62, 72

behaviour under air attack, 152, 288, 372

aid escapers. 505

on Burma–Thailand railway, 587-8

Asosan Maru, Japanese transport, 125n

Assam, 645

Assheton. Lt-Col C. F., 298, 309, 312, 319, 321-2

commands 2/20 Bn, 99n

Awn( (Map p. 139), 147

Ataliklikun Bay (Sketch p. 654), 656

Atambua (Sketch p. 467), 467, 475, 479, 490-1, 492n

Atapupu (Sketch p. 467), 467, 491

Atlantic Charier, 91-2, 199-200

Atlantic Ocean, 18, 19, 26, 52, 80, 92, 127, 253, 423n

convoy protection in, 53

American strategy in, 53n, 54

proposed American naval reinforcement of, 81

Atlantic Wall, 326n

Atomistics, study initiated, 23

Atrocities; see Executions; Massacres

Atsabe (Sketch p. 478), 492n

Attlee, Rt Hon Earl, 635

Auchinleck, Field Marshal Sir Claude, 46n, 103, 145, 163, 184, 255n

Aussi, pinnace, 658, 660

Austin, Lt R. W. L., 244

Australia, 3n, 7, 40n, 53, 55n, 69, 71, 73-4, 81-2, 98, 101, 102, 114n, 146n, 169, 170n, 190, 191n, 199, 214, 252, 259n, 271, 294, 357, 365, 371, 377, 380, 384, 389, 395n, 396, 410, 432, 435, 440, 457-8, 465, 473-4, 481n, 482-3, 491, 496, 503, 506-7, 521-2, 523n, 526, 547, 597, 615, 618, 631, 634, 638, 642, 661

granted mandate over New Guinea, 1

trade relations with Japan, 5-6

defence of, 8, 11, 24-5, 39, 456-7

response to European War, 13, 14

aid to Malaya, 15, 19, 20, 21, 44, 51-2, 60, 83

likelihood of Japanese invasion, 24-5, 41, 43, 56

represented at Singapore Conferences, 41, 76, 80, 163

aircraft production, 45

informed of Beat-Hitler-first policy, 53n

reduction of Japanese staffs in, 57

army strength in, 59, 258n

divided responsibilities of, 61

appoints Government Representative in Singapore, 91-2

declares war on Japan, 130

represented on Far Eastern War Council, 145

development as U.S. Pacific base, 177, 182, 183, 256n, 286, 441, 446, 449, 450, 451-2, 460, 675, 677

representation in higher direction of war, 184, 205-6, 255-6, 260

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

and ABDA Command, 201-2, 646

agrees to reinforce Ambon and Timor, 418, 419, 466

provides weapons for N.E.I. Army, 442

return of AIF to, 444, 445-6, 447, 449, 450, 452, 459, 460, 677-8

Australia House, 459

Australian Air Force, 13, 43, 45, 58, 265-6, 419n, 642

reinforces Malaya, 44n, 49

plans striking force based on Darwin, 76

in Malayan campaign, 123, 223, 244n, withdrawn to N.E.I., 341

strength in ABDA area, 260, 451n, 458

at Rabaul, 397, 398, 399-400, 673

on Ambon, 423n, 426, 435, 439

in Timor, 472-3, 474, 491n

–Squadrons

No. 1, 44n

aircraft of, 121n

at Kota Bharu, 122-3, 125, 137-8

No. 2, in Timor, 419, 468-9, 474

No. 8, 44n, 121n, 124

No. 13, in Ambon, 418-19, 422, 427

No. 21, 44n, 121n

No. 453, 121n, 144, 168-9

Australian Army, 76, 130n, 419, 423n, 520

challenges Singapore base theory, 7-8

studies Japanese language, 8-10

represented on ABDA Command, 256n

strength in ABDA Area. 259-60

lessons of Malaya circulated to, 381n, 443n

strength of, 445, 677

organises repatriation of prisoners of war, 633-4. See also Australian Imperial Force -Amer Headquarters, 9, 32, 57, 65, 67, 70, 85, 116, 154. 256n, 374-5, 376n, 385n, 415, 419, 472, 639, 679

administration of Gull Force, 419n, 420, 422-4, 432

Second Echelon, 680-2

–Artillery: Rabaul AA Bty, 394, 398-9, 401-2, 402-3, 653

Praed Point Bty (Cd), 394-5, 400

–Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit, 661n, 672, 673

–Cavalry: 1st Bde, 35

–Central Army Records Office, 511n, 526, 679-82

–Commands And Military Districts

Eastern Comd, 34

Southern Comd, 424

2 MD, 9

7 MD, 259n, 418, 423n, 474

–Directorate Of Prisoners Of War And Internees, 681

–Divisions: 2nd, 29, 33

–Home Forces HQ, General Bennett suggested as commander, 97

–Infantry

4th Bde, 31

5th Bde, 29

8th Bde, 28, 85

9th Bde, 33

3 Bn, 490n

3/22 Bn, 490n

18 Bn, 29

30 Bn, 29

35 Bn, 30

56 Bn, 29, 30

64 Bn, 32

Melbourne University Regt, 31

New Guinea Volunteer Rifles, 394, 402, 404, 661n, 662

Sydney University Regt, 29

No. 7 Inf Trg Centre, 84

–Military Board, 34, 69, 101-2, 384-5

–New Guinea Area HQ, 397-9, 408

–Rabaul Fortress Signals, 406

–Volunteer Defence Corps, 34

–War Graves Directorate, 669n

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 681

Australian Comforts Fund, 72

Australian Food Relief Mission, 28

Australian Government, 8, 39, 163, 182, 259n, 288, 303, 353, 375, 376, 385n, 633n, 646, 650, 674, 678, 679

restricts trade with Japan, 5-6

bans export of iron ore, 18n

offers brigade group for Malaya, 51-2

and Beat-Hitler-First policy, 53n, 81, 164

sends representative to Portuguese Timor, 57-8

holds forces in readiness to reinforce Timor and Ambon, 76

agrees to develop air bases for American bombers, 89

presses for reinforcement of Singapore and Far East, 92, 252-3, 286, 352

seeks representation in higher direction of war, 183-4

agrees to dispatch of I Aust Corps to Far East, 190

employment of I Aust Corps, 443, 445, 447, 449-52

defence of Portuguese Timor, 446, 469, 471

opposes diversion of AIF to Burma, 459. See also Australia

–Advisory War Council, 57, 255, 256, 271, 272, 286, 447-9, 448-9, 464n

–Army, Dept Of, 55n, 69, 101-2, 154, 167, 419n, 680

–Chiefs Of Staff, 20, 23, 24-5, 45, 58-9, 76, 256n, 272, 392, 396-7, 474

–Civil Aviation, Dept Of, 57

–Defence Committee, 40

–External Affairs, Dept Of, 23, 164, 204, 288, 376, 681

–Information, Dept Of, 73, 680

–Navy, Dept Of, 9

–Prime Minister’s Dept, 9, 674, 680

–Postmaster-General’s Dept, 681

–War Cabinet, 14-15, 20-1, 23, 25, 26-7, 34, 40, 45, 58, 59, 76, 81-2, 83, 93n, 101, 102n, 122, 130, 256, 286-7, 365, 385, 392, 396-7, 419, 447, 449, 474, 675

Australian Imperial Force

First, I Div, 33

2 Bde, 32

3 Bde, 33

15 Bde, 35

5 Bn, 31

6 Bn, 32, 33

44 Bn, 258n

Second, 51n, 76

raising of, 13-14

employment and distribution, 20, 44-5, 59, 71

General Sturdee’s paper, 675-8

strength in Australia, 83

training of, 95, 381n, 443n

attempt to concentrate in Middle East, 102

proposed reinforcement of Malaya with Middle East AIF, 154, 164, 183

recalled to Australia, 444-52, 459-60

strength in Java, 458

–Corps: Anzac, 85

1, 28, 34, 59, 65, 85, 184, 256n, 503

concentration and employment, 25, 27

proposed reinforcement of Malaya, 163, 190, 202-3

planned employment in Java and Sumatra, 260, 272, 371n, 442-3, 506

recalled to Australia, 444-52, 459-60

in Sumatra, 454-5, in Java, 457

necessity for diversion to Burma examined, 460-5

Iii, training of, 381n

–Divisions: Armoured

1st, 164, 418

Infantry, distribution, 95

6th, 13, 14, 20, 33-4, 35, 85, 258n, 459n

move to Far East approved, 190

planned employment in Java, 443n, 444, 676

return to Australia recommended, 447

destination undecided, 450, 451n

offered to augment garrison of Ceylon, 460

7th, 13, 28, 33, 34-5, 85-6, 258n

raising of, 14

proposed dispatch to Malaya, 20, 25

sent: Middle East, 26-7

move to Far East approved, 190

planned employment in Nei, 371, 443n. 444-5, 676

proposed employment in Burma, 447-8, 449, 450-2, 464-5

evacuates Java, 457

proposed diversion to Ceylon, 459

8th, 35, 36, 41n, 61, 74, 83-4, 86, 93, 96n, 97, 153-4, 286, 418, 507, 567, 643

formation of, 14, 28-36

staff of, 34-5, 85-6, in Changi, 522n

training of, 31, 65-9, 70-1, 95-6, 167-8

retained in East Asia, 59

advanced party dispatched to Malaya, 60

arrives Singapore, 62

GOC’s directive, 65

relations with British, 68, 72n, 73, 96-7. 165n, 336n, 523

dispersion of, 69-70, 101

role in Malaya, 72-3, 79, 97-8, 106, 198-9, 203, 241

strength in Malaya, 77, 86, 101, 102

forms administrative headquarters, 101

dispatch of detachments to Ambon and Timor approved, 130

reinforcements, 96, 184, 189, 258n, 296, 371n

in Malaya, 153, 162, 167-8, 181-2, functions as Westforce, 206, 209, 210-21, 222, 225-6, 228-9, 230, 233, 235, 238n, 242, 244, 249-50, 254, 257-61

splitting of in Johore, 207

first contact with Japanese in Johore, 225n

withdraws to Singapore Island, 262, 270, 273, 277, 279, 281, 282-3, 290n

reinforcement of, 258, 290

role on Singapore Island assigned, 254, strength on Singapore Island, 289, 341-2

assigned command of Western Area, 292-3, 295, frontage allotted, 296-7

functions as Western Area headquarters, 300, 301-2, 304-5, 308, 322, 326-7, 329-31, 335-6, 337-9, 346, 348, 351-2, 358, 362, Area reinforced, 317, 323, 325

allotted front in final perimeter, 336-7

issues orders for counter-attack to regain Kranji-Jurong line, 345

AIF perimeter planned, 361

stragglers in Singapore, 366

in final perimeter, 369-70, 374-5, 379

official evacuation organised, 373, 383, 387

ordered to remain at posts, 378

surrenders, 380-1, 382-3

numbers taken prisoner, 511

9th, 35, 85, 258n, 459n, 634, 642

recall of, 445, 447, 450, 451n, 460, 678

–Forces: Blackforce, 454, 511

formed in Java, 457

attempted extrication, 459

in Java, 495-6

operations of, 499-503, 504-6

Eastforce; see 22 Aust Bde

Gull Force, 260, 419, 473

operations of, 420-40

in captivity, 604-8, 608-11, 638-9

Robin Force, 473

Roseforce, 185-6

Sparrow Force, 260, 419, 423n, 470-1, 475, 511

strength and composition, 467-8, dispositions, 472-3

reinforcement, 474

operations of, 482-93

Westforce; see 8 Aust Div

–Artillery: HQ RAA 8 Div, 62, 297n, 310-11, 364-5, 375

2/4 A-Tk Regt, 60n

armament, 86

at Gemas, 210, 217, 220

at Bakri, 225, 227

at Batu Anam, 230

on Singapore Island, 297, 304, 337, 346

at Rabaul, 394-5, 402

on Ambon, 421n

in Timor, 468n, 486, 487-8

in captivity, 527, 544

2/10 Fd Regt, 60n

armament, 86, 101

at Mersing, 251, 252

at Nithsdale, 267, 268n

on Singapore Island, 297-8, 300-1, 326-7, 331-2, 339, 359, 362, 364-5

in captivity, 527, 568, 593

2/14 Fd Regt, 419, 490n

2/15 Fd Regt, armament, 84, 86, 101

at Gemas, 210, 219

at Segamat, 211

at Muar, 222-3, 224

at Bakri, 226-7, 228-9, 233-4, 242-3, 245, losses, 249

at Ayer Hitam, 264

at Namazie Estate, 271

at Ayer Bemban, 277-8

on Singapore Island, 297, 300-1, 315, 322, 326-7, 343, 351, 359, 362

in captivity, 515n, 527, 530n, 536n

2/1 Hvy Bty, in Timor, 468n, 483

–Cavalry Regiments

8th, 86

9th, 86

–Chaplains Dept, in captivity, 547, 583, 591, 598-9, 600

–Engineers: Rae 8 Div, 303, 324n

2/6 Fd Coy, 457, 495, 496n, 536, 558

2/10 Fd Coy, 60n, 251, 297, 314, 315, 320-1, 324, 325

2/11 Fd Coy, 421n, 427, 468n, 482, 484, 487

2/12 Fd Coy, 84, 213, 261, 297, 332-3, 557n

2/6 Fd Pk Coy, 84

2/1 Fortress Engrs, 468n

8 Div Forestry Team, 514

–Independent Companies

formation of, 83-4, 418, 643n

1st

in New Ireland, 396, 398, 412-16

in captivity, 593

2/2nd

in Timor, 467-8, 469-72, 475-82, 490, 491-3

2/3rd, 397

2/5th, 673

–Infantry Brigades

16th, 85, in Ceylon, 443n, 460n

17th, 443n, 460n

18th, 448

21st, 448, 463

22nd, 101, 106n, 266, 272

formation, 28, 29-31

employment decided, 52

sails to Malaya, 60-1

arrives Singapore, 62, 77

in Malaya, 67n

training of, 68-71

in Mersing-Endau area, 98-9, 99-100, 121, 198-9, 203. 221, 222-3, 225-6, 241, 250, 251-2

designated Eastforce, 207, 241, 251, 254, 260

withdrawal to Singapore Island, 261, 269, 270, 279, 281

crosses Causeway, 283

on Singapore Island, 297, 298-9, 306, 308-17, 318-27, 328-9, 330-1, 336-7, 343, 345, 350, 358-9, 360, 361-2, 362-4, 365, 377, casualties, 345n

in captivity, 541

23rd, 69, 83, 84, 394, 418, 467

formation of, 28-9, 31-2

removed from command 8 Div, 101

strength in NT, 419

failure to reform battalions, 490n

24th

formation of, 28-9, 31

sent to Egypt, 35

25th, 448

26th, 601

27th, 69, 85, 97, 121, 356, 364

formation of, 35-6

employment decided, 83

arrives Singapore, 84, 86

role in Johore, 98-9, 100, 154, 167, 198

training of, 101

units of, 106n

at Segamat, 210-11, 214, 221, 231

withdraws to Yong Peng, 235-6, 240

condition of, 250

at Ayer Hitam, 257. 260, 262-4

in withdrawal to Singapore Island, 270-1, 277-9, 281-2

in Causeway sector, 296-7, 298, 301, 318, 325-6, 328-33

placed under command 11 Indian Div, 338-9, 340, 342-3

ordered to recapture Bt Panjang, 354-5

sector allotted in final perimeter, 337

withdraws from Northern Area, 362

in final perimeter, 370

in captivity, 515, 572

–Infantry Battalions, 305n

2/1st, 85

2/5th, 85

2/9th, 85

2/11th, 489n

2/18th. 60n, 62, 106n, 185n, 347, 597n

raising of, 29-30

in Mersing-Endau area, 99, 250, 251-2

at Nithsdale, 262, 266-9

on Singapore Island, 296, 297-8, 300, 302, 306, 308n, 309, 312, 313-15, 319, 320-2, 323-4, 335-6

on Reformatory road, 337, 345, 350, 358-9, 363

2/19th, 60n, 62-3, 68, 86, 106n, 185n, 268, 272

raising of, 29-30

in Mersing-Endau area, 99, 225n, 250

reinforces Muar sector, 226

at Bakri, 228, 229, 231-5

withdrawal from Bakri, 236-40, 241-49

on Singapore Island, 296-7, 298-9, 302, 304-5, 308-9, 315-16, 319, 321, 324, 335, 347, 369

2/20th, 60n, 106n, 185n, 304, 347, 358, 360, 596

in Mersing-Endau area, 99, 250, 251-2

withdraws to Jemaluang, 262, 266

on Singapore Island, 297-8, 302, 305-6, 309, 311-13, 319-20, 321-2, 323-4, 335, 358

2/21st, 467

history of, 418-19

on Ambon, 420-38

escapers, 438-40

not reformed, 490n

in captivity, 511, 604-11, 638-9

2/22nd, raising of 31-2

arrives Rabaul, 394

at Rabaul, 397-410

not re-formed, 490n

in captivity, 511, 593

withdraws from Rabaul, 653-74

2/26th, 106n, 185n, 269, 354, 364

raising of, 35-6

arrives Singapore, 84

in Johore, 99, 100, 210, 264

at Namazie Estate, 270-1, 275-7

at Ayer Bemban, 277-9

withdraws to Singapore Island, 281-2

in Causeway sector, 297-8, 304, 329-30, 331-3, 339, 343, withdraws, 333, 338, 355, 356-7

at Tyersall Park, 362

in captivity, 573n

2/27th, 85

2/29th, 106n, 185n, 318, 328, 352, 356

raising of, 35-6

arrives Singapore, 84

role in Mersing area, 99

in Segamat area, 100, 211

reinforces Muar area, 225

at Bakri, 226, 227-9, 230, 233-5, withdraws, 236-49

on Singapore Island, 296-7, 298

reinforces 22nd Bde, 309, 317, 319

at Tengah airfield, 322-4

withdraws to Bulim line, 326

in Kranji-Jurong line, 335-7, 339, 340

role allotted for recapture of Kranji-Jurong line, 343

at Bt Panjang, 345-6

at Bt Timah, 351

on Reformatory road line, 358

in Tanglin area, 362

factor of tiredness in reinforcements, 371n

in captivity, 573n

2/30th, 86n, 100, 106n, 185n, 249, 357, 381n

raising of, 36

arrives Singapore, 84

role in Johore, 99, 154

at Gemas, 210, 212-21, 225

withdraws to Fort Rose Estate, 230

at Yong Peng, 257-8

at Ayer Hitam, 261, 262-4

at Namazie Estate, 275-7

withdraws to Singapore Island, 279-80, 282

in Causeway sector, 297-8, 301, 318, 329-30, 331-3, 338, 342-3

at Mandai road, 354-6

under command 53rd Bde, 362

withdraws to final perimeter, 364, 368

in captivity, 573n

2/40th, 418, 423

raising of, 32

employment decided, 419

arrives Koepang, 467-8

in Timor, 472-3, 475, 482-9, 492-3

not re-formed, 490n

in captivity, 538

“Merrett Force”, formed, 324

on Reformatory road, 337, 345

in Sleepy Valley Estate, 347-8

Snake Gully Rifles, 360, 364

Special Reserve Bn, formed, 302, 304

on Singapore Island, 317, 319, 322-3, 324, 325-6, 328, 335-6, 337, 340, 345, 347, 348-9, 349-50

“X” Bn, formed, 304, 337

loss of, 345, 347-8

“Y” Bn, on Reformatory road, 358, 363

–Machine-Gun Battalions: 2/3rd, arrives Oosthaven, 454

in Java, 454, 457, 495-6, 501-2, 504

in captivity, 533, 534

2/4th, 83, 304

employment decided, 101, 184, 189

arrives Singapore, 258

on Singapore Island, 272, 297, 298, 302-3, 311, 313-14, 317, 319, 321, 323, 335, 345, 358-9, 362, 363-4

–Medical, 389, 490

Casualty Clearing Stations

2/2nd, 457, 495-6, 532, 533

2/4th, 60n, 541, 554n

2/2nd Con Depot, 168, 370

Dental Units

17th, 60n

22nd, 468n

23rd, 421n

Field Ambulances

2/9th, 60n, 251, 297

2/10th, 84, 297, 370, 395, 401, 663, 666, 667

2/12th, 370, 421n, 436, 468n, 489n

Fd Hyg Sec, 2/5th, 60n

General Hospitals

2/10th, 60n, 62, 167, 362, 370, 387

2/13th, 362, 368, 370, 374, 386, 387

2 Mobile Bacteriological Lab, 60n

Nursing Service, 362

massacre at Banka Island, 386-7

in captivity, 406n, 540, 612, 618, 641, 663n

–Miscellaneous 8 Div Units

Cash Office, 60n

Concert Party, 517, 526, 527, 531

Gen Base Depot, 99n, 101, 279n, 357, 364, 366

–Ordnance

8 Div, 302, 490

8 Div Base Kit Store, 514

2/4 Fd Wksp, 60n

73 Lad, 359

75 Lad, 468n

104 Lad, 421n, 425

2/2 Ord Store, 60n

–Pioneer Battalions

2/2nd, arrives Oosthaven, 454

in Java, 457, 495-6, 500-2, 504-6, 535, 536n

in captivity, 637

2/3rd, 419n

2/4th, 83, 419, 474, 490n

–Postal Unit, 8 Div, 60n

–Prisoners of War Reception Groups

1st, 633n

2nd, 633-4, 635, 638

3rd, 634, 640, 641-2

1st Pw & Internee Reception Unit, 634

–Provost Coy: 8 Div, 60n

–Security Service, 60n

–Service Corps

AASC 8 Div, 62, 302, 421n, 468n, 483n, 490, 573n, 596

105 Gen Tpt Coy, 457, 496

Motor Amb Convoy, 59

2/2nd, 60n

2/3rd, 513n

Res Mt Coys, 59

2/3rd, 146, 156, 165, 283, 383, 457, 496, 548

4 Sup Pers Sec, 60n

–Signals 8 Aust Div, 60n, 213, 242, 245, 308, 317, 329, 350, 356, 360, 364, 373, 383n, 421n, 468n, 594

Australian Labour Party, 5, 8

Australian Mandated Territories, 398n

Australian Navy, 9, 13, 122, 417, 419n, 533, 558. 672n, 673

role in event of Pacific war, 41, 43-4, 45

strength in ABDA Area, 451n, 495

–Navy Office, 398n

–Australia Station, 57

–Naval College, 398n

–Coastwatchers, 398n, 656-7

Australian Prisoners of War Information Bureau, 681

Australian Prisoners of War Relatives Association, 681

Australian Red Cross Society, 680-1

Australians, The, 61, 62-3, 71-2, 388, 389n, 523, 557, 566, 580, 586, 624

Avitaminosis, 527-8, 537

Awagisan Maru, Japanese transport, 125n, 135, 137n

Awa Maru, Japanese transport, 616

Awul (Sketch p. 658), 669, 672

Axis Powers, 17, 23, 37, 41, 52, 94, 136, 183, 199, 283

Ayato Maru, Japanese transport, 125n, 137n

Ayer Bemban (Map p. 262; Sketch p. 278), 277-9

Ayer Hitam (Map p. 262; Sketches pp. 237, 263), 64, 198, 225, 231, 241, 250, 257-8, 259-61

action at, 262-4

Ayer Kuning (Sketch p. 211), 212n

Ayer Molek (Sketch p. 384), 388

Ayer Raja Road (Map p. 344), 337, 358

Aziona, Felix, 596

–B–

Baade, Pte S. A., 506

Babau (Sketch p. 468), 482, 487, 489

action at, 483-4, 485-6

Babington, Air Marshal Sir John, 40, 77

Babo, 419n

Badang (Sketch p. 124), 125

Baguala Bay (Sketch p. 421), 425

Bahau (Sketch p. 208), 209

Bahrein, 371

Baikal, Lake (Map p. 30), 16

Baining Mountains, 661, 664

Baker, Mrs Gladys H., 661

Bakri (Sketches pp. 211, 228), 222-4, 259, 272

action at, 225-30, 231-5

withdrawal from, 236-49

Baldwin, Gnr A., 527n

Baldwin, Maj R. R., 471, 481, 493

Bali (Map p. 393), 392, 416, 453, 475, 633

invasion of 456

Bali Harbour, 673

Balikpapan (Maps pp. 112, 393), 122, 259, 284, 418, 497

Japanese plans, 392

invasion of, 416-17, 490

Baling (Map p. 158), 156, 160, 162

Ball, Maj A. F., 210, 219, 586n

Ball, R. A., 9n

Ballarat, Australian corvette, 456

Ballentine, Brig G. C., 258, 299, 315, 323, 325-6, 340, 359, 363

commands 44 Indian Bde, 297

Bamboo Road (Sketch p. 401), 407

Bampong (Sketches pp. 542, 563), 545, 556, 562-3, 567, 572, 574, 582

Bancroft, A., 615n, 683

Bandjermasin (Sketch p. 179), 284, 490

Bandung (Sketches pp. 498, 500), 206, 419, 440, 495, 497, 499, 500-503, 532-3, 539

prisoners of war at, 536

Bangalore, 444n

Bangkok (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 542), 64, 92, 134, 141n, 556-7, 635, 638

Banham, Maj C. F. W., 265

Banka Island (Sketch p. 384), 383, 385

massacre on, 386-7

prisoners of war on, 540

Banka Strait (Sketch p. 384), 385

Banno, Colonel, 573, 576

Ban Sadao (Map p. 139), 140

Bantam Bay (Sketches pp. 498, 500), 498-9

Barham, British battleship, 253

Barnes, Pte J. H., 318

Barnes, Lt W. G., 350

Barstow, Maj-Gen A. E., 106n, 142, 192, 210, 223, 270, 273

commands 9 Indian Div, 77

killed, 274

Barton, Col N. D., 420

Baryon, Sgt S. J., 242

Bata, Sungei (Sketch p. 148), 150

Bataan Peninsula (Sketches pp. 88, 390), 205, 341-2

withdrawal to, 177-9

operations on, 389-91

surrender of, 506-7

Batang Berjuntai (Sketch p. 188), 193

Batan Island (Map p. 178), 177

Batavia (Map p. 112; Sketch p. 498), 204-5, 383, 442, 444n, 446-8, 457, 480, 495, 497-9, 502, 533, 536, 538-9, 675, 681

Batchelor Field, 177

Bateman, Lt P. J., 655

Bathurst, 83

Battery Road (Sketch p. 401), 395

Batu Anam (Map p. 54; Sketches pp. 208, 211), 198-9, 206. 210-11, 223, 230

Batuanjut (Sketch p. 421), 431

Batuanjut, Cape (Sketch p. 421), 425

Batu Batu (Sketch p. 595), 595

Batugong (Sketch p. 421), 428

Batumerah (Sketch p. 421), 431

Batu Pahar (Map p. 262; Sketches pp. 99, 211), 100, 168, 198, 203, 207, 222, 224-5, 230-1, 236, 238, 241, 249-50, 254, 256-7, 258-9, 260, 264-5, 271

Batu Pekaka (Map p. 158), 161

Batu Tiga (Sketch p. 208), 207

Baun Road (Sketch p. 468), 483

Bayliss, W. C.; see Penfold, A. W., Bayliss, W. C. and Crispin, K. E.

Baynes, Lt V., 381n

Bayonets, use of, 70n, 215, 232, 239, 262, 267, 276, 278, 314, 332, 348, 349n, 350, 363-4, 477, 504

Bazar-Tete (Sketch p. 478), 471, 479, 480-1

Bazley, A. W., 33n

Beachlights, employment on Singapore bland, 301, 309, 310-11, 318, 331-2

Beadman, Gnr W. S. R., 530n

Beale, Maj R. F. S., 323, 325, 335, 350, 374, 377

Bean, C. E. W., 35

Beattie, Pte R. G., 218

Beaumont, Sgt J. R., 660

Beckwith-Smith, Maj-Gen M. B., 294, 512

Beirne, Capt B. R., 298, 356-7

Beke Taung (Sketch p. 550), 546-7, 553

Bell, Spr A. J., 550

Bell, Lt L. J., 660, 673

Bena Bena (Sketch p. 658), 673

Benain River (Sketch p. 467), 491

Bengal, Bay of (Sketch p. 448), 47, 371, 677

Japanese strength in, 451n, 464

Bengkalis Island (Sketch p. 384), 388

Bennett, Lt-Gen H. Gordon (Plate p. 47), 8n, 82n, 93, 99, 106n, 145, 153, 197, 221, 228, 233-4, 241-2, 243, 245n, 246, 249, 254, 256-7, 271-2, 274, 279, 281-2, 283, 297, 298-9, 300, 304, 305n, 308-9, 323, 329, 335, 338, 346, 348, 352-3, 354n, 357-8, 359, 361, 363, 370-1, 372-3, 374, 376, 379n, 512

commands 8 Aust Div, 32-5

sets age limits for officers, 36

flies to Malaya, 60

his directive, 65, application of, 72-3, 97, 207

problems of, 65-7

endeavours to concentrate division, 69, 70, 98, 101

relations with Brigadier Taylor, 70

promotion of senior officers, 85-6

relations with General Percival, 96-8

granted right to communicate with Minister for the Army, 101-2

urges transfer of AIF division in Middle East to Malaya, 154, 182

on Japanese tactics, 155, 164, 168

attends Dec 1941 Singapore Conference, 163n

orders reconnaissance of Gemas-Muar line, 167, 198

reports to Sturdee, 23 Dec, 181-2

plans defence of Johore, 199

commands Westforce, 203, 206

directs defence of Muar-Segamat line, 210, 212, 214, 222, 223, 225, 226

orders withdrawal behind Sungei Segamat, 230-1

orders recapture of Bukit Pelandok, 236

resumes command of troops on Muar road, 240

issues orders for withdrawal to Singapore Island, 261-2, 270

plans escape, 273, 377, 380-1

commands Western Area, 293

propounds policy of aggressive defence, 301, 303

orders formation of Special Reserve Battalion, 302

orders reserves to 22nd Brigade sector, 317

orders counter-attack to recapture Ama Keng, 322

ordered to stabilise on Kranji-Jurong line, 325

withdraws headquarters to Holland road, 326

allotted role in defence of Singapore, 336-7

ordered to recapture Kranji-Jurong line, 339-40, 343, 345

issues orders for recapture of Bukit Timah, 350-1

plans final AIF perimeter, 361, 369

appoints Varley to command 22nd Brigade, 362

restricts Australian artillery fire, 375

issues orders for units to remain at posts, 378

compiles training manuals, 381n

escapes, 383-4

attends War Cabinet meeting, 385

Ligertwood inquiry, 650-2

Bennett, Capt J. W., 517, 522n

Benoit, Sig M. A. W., 245

Benteng (Sketch p. 421), 422, 425, 434

Benteng Battery, 430, 435

Bentong (Sketch p. 208), 209

Benut (Map p. 262), 260-1, 264-5, 273

Benut, Sungei (Map p. 262), 261, 264

Beresford, Pte E. S., 359

Berhala Island (Sketch p. 595), 594, 596-7

Beri Beri, 540, 555, 585, 609

Berih, Sungei (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310). 297, 299, 302, 309, 315-16, 321, 326

Berlin, 37, 38, 75, 79, 80, 90

Bernam, Sungei (Sketch p. 188), 189

Berryman, Lt-Gen Sir Frank, 442-3, 457, 500, 642

Besikama (Sketch p. 467), 491

Best, Lt E. W., 662, 664, 669, 671

Betong (Maps pp. 139, 158), 146, 156

Beverley, Capt F. G., 231-2, 236-7, 238, 242, 245

Bhamo (Sketch p. 461), 16

Bias Bay (Map p. 30), 11

Bicycle Camp, 533, 534-6, 538-9

Bidor (Map p. 188), 187, 189

Big Dipper Road (Sketch p. 401), 395, 402, 405

Bilin River (Sketch p. 461), 461-2

Billett, Lt B. H., 486

Billings, Cpl, 384n

Bingham, Cpl G. J. W., 245, 350

Binnen Bay (Sketch p. 421), 420-1, 429, 437

Bismarck Archipelago (Sketch p. 413), 392

Black, Lt-Col C. M., 146n, 546-7, 551, 553, 554n, 558

Blackburn, Brig A. S., VC, 495, 499, 500-1, 502, 525, 534-5, 536n, 631n

arrives Oosthaven, 454-5

commands AIF in Java, 457, role, 496-7

surrenders, 503

Black Sea, 141

Bladin, Air Vice-Marshal F. M., 80n

Blain, Sgt A. M., 597, 599n

Blakang Mati, Pulau (Map p. 286), 231, 519

Blake, Maj-Gen D. V. J. 206, 418

Blamey, Field Marshal J., Thomas, 33, 35, 85, 95, 97, 101, 256n, 633, 638, 642

visits Malaya, 102

career compared to Wavell’s, 255

Blanche Bay (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 392, 395, 401

Bland, Pte J. R., 216n

Blanja (Map p. 158), 166, 181

‘how, Maj R., 597

Bobonaro (Sketch p. 478), 492

Bogadjim (Sketch p. 658), 661, 673

Bogor; see Buitenzorg

Bombay (Sketch p. 448), 160, 182, 190, 444-5, 448, 463, 675, 678

Bond, Lt-Gen Sir Lionel, 14, 40, 78, 107

Bonegilla, 31, 36, 418

Bongaya River (Sketch p. 595), 603

Bonin Islands (Map p. 112), 410

Bonney, Lt L. G., 245

Boom, Capt E. H., 355

Booth, Lt L. H., 218-19, 220

Boreham, Capt, 522n

Borneo (Map p. 42; Sketches pp. 179, 595), 7, 48n, 51, 78, 111, 122, 454, 490, 533, 614, 634

invasion of, 110, 179-81

prisoners of war sent to, 525

deaths among, 642

Borneo, British North (Sketches pp. 88, 179, 595), 41, 47, 205, 593

British strength in, 106, 121

invasion of, 111, 134, 169, 179-81

prisoners of war in, 593-604, 633

BNB Constabulary, 594, 596

Borneo, Dutch (Map p. 393; Sketch p. 179), 205-6, 259, 392

invasion of, 179-81

Bosley, Maj W. A., 529

Boss, Capt J. A., 219

Bostock, Air Vice-Marshal W. D., 41n

Burnam, Maj W. G., 665, 669

Botterill, Pte K., 603, 604

Boucher, Rear-Admiral M. W. S., 53n

Bougainville (Maps pp. 30, 393), In, 396

Bouman, Capt E. P., 429, 430-1, 435

Bowden, V. G., 163, 366

appointed Australian Government Representative in Singapore, 91-2

represents Australia on Far Eastern War Council, 145

cables and reports to Australia, 164-5, 182, 288-9, 353, 365

assesses leaders in Malaya, 204-5

leaves Singapore, 376-7

death of, 385-6

Bowring, Capt W. B., 296, 339, 345, 351-2

Boyan, Capt R. H., 673

Boyce, Capt C. R., 624, 640

Boyes, Lt-Col A. H., 210, 276-7, 298, 330, 337, 345, 347

commands 2/26 Bet, 35

commands “X” Bn, 304

Boyland, Capt G., 472, 480

Bracher, Capt W. P., 238

Braddell Road (Sketch p. 374), 361, 369

Braddon, Gnr Russell, 515n, 583n, 584n, 683

Bradley, Maj B. H. J., 347, 348

Bradley’s Head, 60

Braithwaite, Bdr J. R., 604

Brand, Capt V., 243

Braund, Maj F. N. B., 644

Breavington, Cpl R. E., 523

Bren Carriers, at Gemas, 220

Brennan, Dr E. T., 397n

Brennan, Sgt R. N., 332

Brereton, Maj-Gen Lewis H., 129, 458n

commands Allied Air forces ABDA Command, 205

Brett, Lt-Gen George H., 256n, 458n, 507

appointed Deputy C-in-C ABDA Command, 205

Bridgeford, Lt-Gen Sir William, 443, 457

Bridges, in Malaya, demolition of, 212n, 213-14

Bridges, Maj W. F. N., 72

Bridges, Maj-Gen Sir W. T., 72

Bridgland, Maj R. J., 522n, 683

Brink, Col Francis G., 381n

Brisbane, 441, 497n

diversion of Pensacola convoy to, 127

Brisby, Cpl H. H., 362

Bristow, Capt V. G., 413, 415

Britain, Battle of, 136, 144, 287, 484

Britain, Great, 4, 32, 35, 40n, 43, 45-6, 57, 63, 74-5, 85, 94-5, 111, 121, 136, 145, 146n, 147, 163, 279, 352-3, 371, 423n, 461, 503, 507, 631, 642

naval strength, 1, 12

decides to build Singapore Base, 3

trade relations with Australia, 5-6

and Japan, 6-7, 10-12, 16, 17, 26, 39, 51-2, 109

freezes Japanese assets, 87, 90

plans and policies in Far East, 7, 8-9, 13, 17-18, 80-3, 189-90

American aid to, 17, 37-8, 53, 55

proposes dispatch of AIF to Singapore, 19, 25, 83

suspends transit of war materials to China, 21-2

reopens Burma Road, 38

withdraws troops from Shanghai and Tientsin, 23

collaboration with America, 39, 55, 76, 91, 109, 449

and Burma, 50

Far East reinforcement policy, 53-4, 76, 82-3, 103, 164, 183-4, 252-3

strength compared to Japan, 59

Japan plans to attack, 110, 132

relations with Thailand, 141n

interests in Borneo, 179

machinery for handling Pacific problems, 191n

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

and ABDA command, 201, 646-8

represented on Combined Chiefs of Staff, 202

Dominion representation in higher direction of war, 255-6

effect of fall of Singapore on, 383. See also British Government

British, The, 80, 384n, 522, 524, 587

use of term, 15n

relations with Australians, 72, 420, 523, 557, 566, 580, 586, 624

British Air Force, 47, 48, 52, 74, 126, 129, 141n, 205, 278n, 287, 499, 502, 532-3, 593

strength in Malaya and Far East, 13, 49-50, 58, 82-3, 163, 207, 271

estimated requirements in Malaya, 41, 164, 166n

role in Malaya, 43, 100, 107, 221

distribution, 121n

strength compared to Japan’s, 59

strength in Burma, 108

reinforcement, 190

in Malayan campaign, 123, 125, 143-4, 151, 169, 180, 265-6

losses, 141-2, 266

reinforcement, 146, 169, 182-4, 190, 221, 257

strength in Java, 272, 442, 458, 495

On Singapore Island, 294, 303, 317, 352, 365, 379

withdrawn from, 281, 289, 325-6, 341, 373

in Sumatra, 365, 453, 454-5

–Air Command, Far East, 121, 124-5, 137-8, 143-4, 154, 180, 265, 341

–Norgroup, 168

–Squadrons: No. 21, 169

No. 27, 121n

No. 34, 121n

No. 36, 121n

No. 60, 121n

No. 62, 121n

No. 100, 121n

No. 205, 121n

No. 243, 121n

British Army, 32n, 52, 63, 110, 205, 255, 306, 342, 353, 453, 455, 458, 520

strength in Malaya, 13, 49, 77, 102-3, 207, 221

requirements, 41, 164, 166n

reinforcement of, 81, 190

withdrawn from Shanghai and Tientsin, 23

relations with air force in Malaya, 48

lacks air support, 352

weaknesses in Far East, 58

training of, 68, 95-6, 186, 381n

relations with AIF, 68, 72n, 73, 96-7, 165n, 336n, 420, 523

tactics in Malaya, 107

strength in Hong Kong, 107, 170

casualties, 176

strength on Singapore Island, 271, 289-90, 341, 342

evacuation of, 372-3

surrender of, 379

losses, 382, 511

strength in Java, 458, 495, 497n

strength in Burma, 462-3

–General Headquarters, Far East, 47

–General Headquarters, Middle East, 85

–British Expeditionary Force, 78, 166

–Commands: Aldershot Command, 78

British Tps in China, 170

Malaya Command, 61, 69, 96, 106, 137, 154, 180, 185, 191, 193, 204, 221, 294, 307, 322n, 326, 352, 375n, 382, 520, 525

and training 63, 67, 70

employment of AIF, 65, 72-3

General Percival appointed commander, 78

lacks Indian and Australian representation, 97

endeavours to raise labour force, 107

and Operation Matador, 138-9

imposes artillery ammunition restrictions on Singapore Island, 299-300

lifts restrictions, 327

fears seaborne attack, 305

plans perimeter defence of Singapore, 337

allots vacancies for official evacuation party, 373

Northern Command, 458

Southern Command, 461

–Area Commands

Northern Area, 293, 295-6, 304, 327, 339, 362, 368

Southern Area, 293, 295-6, 353, 514n

–Fortress Troops: Hong Kong, 170, 174, 176

Penang, 156n

Singapore, 106, 168, 206-7, 254, 293

–Divisions: Armoured

distribution among major theatres, 95

Infantry, distribution, 95

compared with Japanese divisions, 115

6th, 86, 459n

18th, 95n, 184, 202, 257, 450n, 451n, 507, 512, 514n, 572

diverted to Far East, 145

reinforces Singapore, 182, 189-90, 221, 287, 289-90, 304

role assigned, 254, 293

on Singapore Island, 294-5, 304-5, 336, 339, 341-2, 357-8, 361, 364

44th, 78

70th, 447. 459

–Brigades: Armoured

7th

diverted to Burma, 445, 460, 462-3, 464

diversion to Australia proposed, 446, 678

proposed employment in Java, 676

Infantry, East Bde, at Hong Kong, 173, 175

West Bde, at Hong Kong, 173-4, 175

53rd, 184, 203, 221, 225-6, 231

in Malayan campaign, 257-8, 260, 273, 289

at Bt Pelandok, 235-6, 240-1, 241-2, 244, 256

at Benut, 261, 264

on Singapore Island, 357, 362, 364, 368-9, 373

54th, 290, 339, 353, 369

55th, 290, 339, 353, 369

–Forces: Dalforce, 293-4, 298, 312, 377

East force; see 22 Aust Bde

Massy Force, 353, 358-9, 360, 369

Roseforce, 163

Tomforce, 339, 343, 350-1, 352-3, 354n, 358-9, 369

Westforce; see 8 Aust Div

–Armour

3rd Hussars, 454-5, 495, 497, 502

7th Hussars, 463

100th Light Tank San, 353

Ind Royal Tank Regt, 463

–Artillery

strength and employment on Singapore Island, 291-2, 300, 327

Anti-aircraft

in Java, 442, 495, 499

in Sumatra, 454-5

6th Heavy AA Regt, 221, 497n

21st Light AA Regt, 497n

35th Light AA Regt, 221, 497n

48th Light AA Regt, 497n

77th Heavy AA Regt, 497n

79th Light AA Bty, in Timor, 468n, 474, 484-5, 486

Anti-tank, 231

80th A-Tk Regt, 147

85th A-Tk Regt, 221, 339

2nd A-Tk Bty, 187

273 A-Tk Bty, 187. Coast, 293

11th Coast Regt, 156n

Hong Kong and Singapore Fortress Arty, 156n

Field, 5th Regt, 191, 297n, 326-7. 343, 359, 362

88th Regt, 159, 187

135th Regt, 221

137th Regt, 147, 194-5

155th Regt, 146, 195

73rd Bty, 125

–Engineers, 375

36th Fortress Coy, 156n

287th Field Coy, 221

–Independent Companies, formation of, 83

1st, 106, 162

–Infantry Battalions

distribution in Indian Army, 104

2/Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, 106n, 153, 185, 272, 359, 381n, 388n, 443n, 500

training of, 67

in Malayan campaign. 156, 161-2, 165-6, 189, 194-5, 283

on Singapore Island, 293, 324-5, 336, 339, 343, 346

5/Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, 358, 364, 369n, 370, 379

British Bn, formed, 188

in Malayan campaign, 189, 208, 231, 259, 265

on Singapore Island, 296, 540, 345, 348-9. 350, 359

1/Cambridgeshire, 353

2/Cambridgeshire, 221, 265n

in Malayan campaign, 225, 230-1, 259-60, 264

Cameronians, 463

2/East Surrey, 49, 106n

in Malayan campaign, 147, 150, 157, 159

2/Gordon Highlanders, 104, 106n, 261, 269, 272, 359, 361, 388

in Malayan campaign, 264, 271, 275, 277, 279

cross Causeway, 283

on Singapore Island, 352, 358, 363-4, 369-70

King’s African Rifles, 79

King’s Own Scottish Borderers, 388

1/Leicester, 106n

at Jitra, 147-8, 149, 150-1

2/Loyals, 104, 106n, 206, 211, 225, 231, 258, 261, 262-4

at Bt Pelandok, 235-6, 240-1, 244, 257

on Singapore Island, 369n, 370, 379

1/Manchester, 104, 106n, 258n

1/Middlesex, 172-3. 174-5

4/Norfolk, 339, 351

5/Norfolk, 221, 231, 259, 265n

relieve 2/19 Bn, 226

at Batu Pahat, 260-1

6/Norfolk, 221, 238, 261, 265n

at Bt Pelandok, 225, 228, 230-1, 235-6

18th Reconnaissance Bn, 339, 350, 351-2

2/Royal Scots, 172-3, 175

1/Seaforth Highlanders, 49

1/5 Sherwood Foresters, 339, 351, 362

4/Suffolk, 353

West African Frontier Force, 78

–Mission 204, 51, 643-5

–Royal Army Medical Corps, 388, 389

–Searchlight Regiment: 5th, 301, 309, 310-11, 331

British Empire, 5, 7, 14, 48n, 51, 54, 82, 93, 136, 201n, 253, 286, 341-2, 678

British Government, 14, 15, 18, 40, 45-6, 54, 58, 76, 81-2, 93, 109, 130, 182, 191n, 255, 469, 471, 475n

reaffirms policy of stationing main fleet in European waters, 6

proposes dispatch of AIF Div to Malaya, 19-20, 23, 25

requests preparation of Indian divisions for overseas service, 44

emphasises need for protection of Singapore Naval Base, 53n

proposes dispatch of I Aust Corps to Far East, 190

Far East reinforcement policy, 252-3

destination of I Aust Corps, 449, 451n, 459

–Admiralty, 92, 122n, 130, 144, 452

–Air Ministry, 169

–Chiefs of Staff, 24, 46, 79, 141, 153n, 163-4, 166, 184, 285-6, 447, 457-8, 460, 462-3, 465, 648-9

estimate length of time Singapore required to hold out, 14

place reliance for defence of Malaya on air power, 18, 40-1

estimate requirements, 51

Far East reviews and appreciations, 19-20, 23-4, 82-3, 145-6, 169, 189-90

review situation in Middle East, 21

collaborate with American Chiefs of Staff, 52-3, 76-7

and Operation Matador, 93, 122

–Chiefs of Staff Committee, 7, 284

–Colonial Office, 13, 48, 191n, 375

–Defence Committee, 81, 451n, 169

–Dominions Office, 53n, 191n, 256, 450. 457

–Economic Warfare, Ministry of, 191n

–Foreign Office, 13, 191n

–Future Operational Planning Section, 81

–Home Defence, Ministry of, 13

–House of Commons, 26, 75, 451n

–India Office, 191n

–Information, Ministry of, 74, 191n

–Overseas Defence Committee. 13

–Treasury, 13, 107

–War Cabinet, 91, 136, 184, 256, 341, 447

–War Office, 93, 96, 122, 255n, 457, 462

offers instructors for Australian Independent Coys, 83

hampers raising of labour force in Malaya, 107

warns Brooke-Popham of impending collapse of Washington negotiations, 121

asks for Australian reserve motor transport Coys, 146n

destination of I Aust Corps, 444, 450

plans repatriation of prisoners of war, 632-3

British Isles, 136n

probable loss envisaged by United States, 54

British Navy, 10, 22, 25, 39, 45, 90, 114, 145, 283, 287, 371, 396, 417, 446, 497, 507, 642

strength fixed at Washington Conference, 1

stationing of fleet in Far East, 6, 15, 24, 76, 81, 82

commitments, 7

role in event of war in Far East, 8, 12, 24

and Singapore Base, 15, 18, 19-20, 24, 27, 44, 78

naval reinforcement of, 92, 103

in Mediterranean, 23-4, 51-2, 56, 83

Japanese estimate of, 80

at Hong Kong, 108, 172, 174

in Malayan campaign, 141-2, 144, 205, 294, 379, 388, 389

transfers to Java, 204, 372

reinforced in Indian Ocean, 253

strength in Java area, 271-2, 442, 495

–China Station, 74, 80, 93, 145n

merged with Eastern Fleet, 122n

–Eastern Fleet, 122, 145n, 146

–China Force, 495

–”Z” Force, 142, 143-5

–Marines, 293, 325

–Staff College, 78

British Overseas Airways Corporation, 444n

Britz, J. H., 683

Broadbent, Brig J. R., 9-10, 70, 86n, 361, 373, 377, 383, 389

appointed AA and QMG 8 Div, 28

Broadcasts, in captivity, 526, 537, 679-81

Brooke-Popham, Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert (Plate p. 47), 48-9, 59, 74, 82n, 83-4, 100, 107, 108n, 121, 145-6, 164, 168, 392

appointed C-in-C Far East, 46

extent of command, 46-7, 50-1

visits Australia, 58

urges reinforcement of Hong Kong, 77

optimistic of ability of Singapore to operate as fleet base, 81

and Operation Matador, 92-3, 109, 122-5

urges aircraft reinforcement of Malaya, 141

approves withdrawal from Kelantan, 153

seeks Indian Army reinforcements, 160-1

replaced, 166

assessment of, 204

Brown, Capt, 587

Brown, Cecil, 74n

Brown, Lt G. V., 264

Brown, Sgt W. E., VC, 536n

Bruce, Rt Hon Viscount, 169, 449-50

Bruce, Capt A. L., 130n

Bruce, Maj-Gen I. G., 644-5

Brunei, State of (Sketch p. 179), 48n, 179

Brunei Bay (Sketch p. 179), 179

Buchanan, Pte A. D., 434

Buckman, Sgt G. I., 223

Buitenzorg (Sketch p. 498), 497, 499, 500-2, 504

Bujang Melaka (Map p. 188), 187

Buka Passage (Map p. 393), 396

Bukit Banang (Map p. 262), 259

Bukit Belah (Sketch p. 237), 225, 235

Bukit Brown (Sketch p. 360), 357

Bukit Langkap (Sketches pp. 99, 251), 99, 153, 251

Bukit Mandai (Maps pp. 286, 344), 291, 330, 338, 343

Bukit Panjang (Maps pp. 286, 344), 291, 306, 315, 322, 328-9, 333, 338-9, 345-6, 351, 357

recapture ordered, 354-5

plan abandoned, 355-6

Bukit Payong (Map p. 262; Sketch p. 237), 228, 244

Bukit Pelandok (Map p. 262; Sketch p. 237) 225, 230, 231, 256-7, 264

53rd Bde at, 235-6, 240-2, 249

Bukit Timah (Maps pp. 286, 344), 186, 291, 519

Bukit Timah Rifle Range, 351, 367

Bukit Timah Road (Map p. 344; Sketch p. 360), 337, 346, 350-1, 352-3, 359-61, 362, 369, 379, 511

Bukit Timah Village (Maps pp. 286, 344; Sketch p. 360), 291, 309, 325, 336-7, 339, 340-1, 345-6, 347-8, 349, 350-2, 354, 356, 359n, 362, 364, 366-7, 379-80, 523, 651

Bukit Tinggi, 358

Bukum, Pulau, 366

Bulcock, F-Lt R. P., 683

Bulim (Map p. 286; Sketches pp. 310, 324), 303, 315, 318, 320, 322-6

Bulim Line (Sketch p. 324), 323-4, 325-7, 335, 339

Bulldog (Sketch p. 658), 673

Bullitt, William C., 38

Bullwinkel, Sister Vivian, 386-7

Buloh, Sungei (Map p. 286), 306

Buloh Kasap (Sketch p. 211), 211, 235

Bundy, McGeorge, 391n

Buona Vista (Sketch p. 374), 361, 369

Buona Vista Road (Sketch p. 374), 361, 363, 369, 370

Burma (Map p. 30; Sketches pp. 461, 542), 10, 16, 21, 41, 45, 47, 84, 102, 107, 134, 141n, 160, 169, 205, 210n, 259, 281, 284, 443, 450n, 457, 459, 562, 576, 579, 588, 589n, 591, 615, 643, 644

defence plans, 43-4, 50, 58, 206

reinforcement of, 79, 190, 191n, 285-6, 445, 460

British strength in, 108, 461

transferred to India Command, 108n, 146, 456, 461

included in ABDA Command, 201, 202, 646, 648

Japanese plans, 111

proposed employment of AIF in, 444, 446-7, 448-9, 450-2, 456, 460-5

and Great Britain, 449

invasion of, 461-4

British Withdrawal from, 507

prisoners of war in, 541-57, 633

deaths among, 561, 642

release and repatriation, 637

see also Burma–Thailand Railway

Burma Defence Force, 50, 79, 108

–1st Burma Division, 461, 462, 464

–2nd Burma Brigade, 461

–Burma Rifles, 462

Burma Road, 16, 39, 50, 201, 285, 447, 449-50, 460, 643, 677

closed, 21-2

reopened, 38

Burma–Thailand Railway (Sketches pp. 542, 550, 563), 519, 525, 589-90, 614, 619

“A” Force on, 546-57

Group 5 on, 557-61

Dunlop Force, 562-6

“D” Force, 566-71

“F” Force, 571-8

“H” Force, 581-7

employment of coolie labour, 573, 575, 580, 586, 587-8

casualties incurred, 549, 553, 554n, 560-1, 566-71, 581, 585-6, 588, 591, 642

news of conditions reaches Australia, 615

Burmese, The, 543, 550-1, 560

demand removal of British control, 50

Burnett, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles, 424n

Burnett, Capt J., 41n

Burnie, Australian corvette, 455, 499

Burns, Lt J. L., 414

Burr, Capt D. F., 472, 485-6, 487-8

Burt, Capt S. F., 236, 305n

Buru Island (Sketch p. 439), 419n, 422

Bush, Dr Vannevar, 23n

Butler, Mt (Map p. 171), 174

Butler, Sgt R. W., 597

Byrne, Lt-Col L. J. A., 29, 86n, 614

Byrne, Pte M. G., 504-5

–C–

Cahill, Capt R. L., 243

Cailaco (Sketch p. 478), 492

Cairns, 661

Cairo, 47, 57, 205

Calcutta (Sketch p. 448), 444n, 449-50, 464-5

Caldecote, Lord, 19, 20

Calder, Maj J. E. M., 496n

California, 170n, 441

Callaghan, Maj-Gen C. A. (Plate p. 15), 69, 86n, 153, 241, 297n, 300, 304, 362, 382, 522, 612, 631n

appointed CRA 8 Div, 28

commands 8 Div, 381, 512

Callinan, Lt-Col B. J., 83n, 475-6, 477, 478-9, 492-3

Calvert, Pte C. L., 318

Calvert, Brig J. M., 84, 643n

Camberley, 78, 85

Cambodia, Cape (Sketch p. 88), 123, 135

Cameron, Lt-Col A. G., 653, 655, 659

Camiguin Island (Map p. 178), 177

Camouflage, Japanese use of, 349

Campbell, Capt A., 479

Campbell, Maj H. A., 388

Campbell, Gnr O. C., 603, 604

Camranh Bay (Sketch p. 88), 87, 122, 180, 453, 497

Canada, 11, 39, 53, 183

reinforces Hong Kong, 95

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

Canadian Army, reinforces Hong Kong, 107, strength at, 170

–Royal Rifles of Canada, 95, 172-3, 175

–Winnipeg Grenadiers, 95, 172-4

Canberra, 9n, 32, 39, 599n, 674

Canberra, Australian cruiser, 61

Canopus, steam yacht, 469

Canteens, in captivity, Singapore, 518-19

in Sumatra, 540

in Burma, 543

on Burma–Thailand railway, 551-2, 559, 585

in Borneo, 600

on Formosa, 629

Canton (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 644), 11, 114, 269, 643

Cape, Col T. F., 474

Capes, Maj G. H., 9, 10

Caroline Islands (Map p. 30), 1

Carpendale, Brig W. St J., 106n, 146, 149, 159

Carpentaria, Gulf of (Sketch p. 439), 201, 439

Carr, Lt-Col H. H., 394, 397, 399, 405-6, 407-8, 660, 663-4, 672-3

commands 2/22 Bn, 31-2

Carr, Pte J. G., 621

Carr, Lt W. P., 239

Carter, Maj W. A., 99, 312, 596

Carty, Capt L. A., 384n

Casey, Rt Hon R. G., 17-18, 25, 39-40, 182, 183n, 450-1, 459

Casualties

in air raids, Malaya, 126, 156, 287

at Darwin, 493

American, at Pearl Harbour, 127

Australian, 489n

in Malaya, 220, 249, 264, 268, 278, 345n

totals, 382

at Rabaul, 410

at Kavieng, 416n

on Ambon, 436

in Timor, 488, 489

in Java, 506

in captivity, 554, 642

British

in Prince of Wales and Repulse, 144

at Hong Kong, 176

in Malaya, 382

Indian, in Malaya, 151, 155, 193

Japanese, 70n, 151, 176, 220, 249, 382, 412, 481, 489, 507

Caucasus, 145

Causeway (Maps pp. 286, 344; Sketch p. 328), 272-3, 279, 290-1, 293, 296, 300-1, 315, 325-6, 327-8, 335, 340, 342-3, 364

withdrawal across, 281-2

demolition of, 283

dispositions, 297-8

Japanese bombardment, 308

patrol activity, 318

withdrawal from, 329-33, 338

Cavite (Map p. 178), 177

Celebes (Maps pp. 30, 393), 111, 205-6, 259, 392, 420

Japanese plan invasion, 179

Celebes Maru, Japanese transport, 541

Ceram (Sketch p. 439), 420, 439, 440

Ceylon (Sketch p. 448), 47, 371, 387, 443n, 444n, 463, 633

planned British reinforcement of, 447

diversion of AIF to, 459-60

Challen, Brig B. S., 231, 259, 261, 264-5, 296

commands 6/15 Indian Bde, 207

Champion, Lt I. F., 672

Champion De Crespigny, Maj J. C.

see De Crespigny, Maj J. C. Champion

Champlong (Sketch p. 468), 468, 472, 475, 482-4, 486, 488-9

Changaraya (Sketch p. 563), 574-6

Changi (Map p. 286), 96, 248n, 293, 352, 380, 539, 557-8, 571-2, 581, 585, 587, 593, 612-13, 624, 640

withdrawal from, 361, 364

move of prisoners to, 382-3

prisoners of war at, 511-32

Changi Airfield, 528, 530, 532, 637

Changi Black Market, 518

Changi Broom Factory, 527

Changi Detention Barracks, 527

Changi Education Centre, 517

Changi Gaol, 514, 520, 522, 526-7

concentration of prisoners in, 529-32

liberation of prisoners, 635-7

Changi University, 516-17

Changi Yeast Centre, 528n

Changkat Jong (Sketch p. 188), 189

Changlun (Map p. 139), 140, 147

Changsha (Sketch p. 644), 643-4

Changwa School, 539

Chaplains, Australian, in captivity, 523, 537, 547, 583, 591, 598-9, 600

Chaplin, Lt W. J., 425, 431

Chapman, Col James A., 57

estimates Japanese intentions, 114n

Chapman, Capt W. A. M., 431, 433, 439-40

Chemor (Sketch p. 188), 184

Chen Cia Tung (Sketch p. 617), 630

Chenderoh Lake (Map p. 158), 165, 166

Chiang Kai-Shek, Generalissimo, 21-2, 39, 94n, 464

Chifley, Rt Hon J. B., 650

Childs, American seaplane tender, 417

China, 6, 10, 14, 16, 19, 24, 26-7, 33, 50, 91, 93, 108-9, 111, 113, 115-16, 117, 132, 141, 204, 256, 283, 334, 342, 446-7, 450n, 451n, 462, 639, 677

and Japan, 1, 2, 3, 10, 17, 18, 58, 87

Japanese strength in, 114

spread of Communism in, 4

trade with Australia, 5

supply routes to, 16, closing of, 21-2

relations with United States, 17, 38-9, 94n, 201n, 449

first Australian Minister appointed, 92

effect of fall of Hong Kong, 176

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

and ABDA Directive, 202, 646, 648

Mission, 204, 643-5

Chinese, The, 50, 165, 172, 204, 209, 248, 279n, 281, 285, 303, 324n, 341, 395, 450, 519, 594-5, 596-7, 598, 610, 658, 662

population in Malaya, 64, at Hong Kong, 170, in Timor, 466

behaviour under air attack, 288n, 372

in Dalforce, 293

employed on Burma–Thailand railway, 586, 587-8

Chinese Army, 3, 201n

Mission 204 to, 643-5

–V Chinese Army, in Burma, 462

Chinese High School (Sketch p. 360), 359

Chinese Mobilisation Council., 204

Chisholm, Maj J., 472, 489

Chisholm, Capt J. W. S., 308n, 315, 320, 358, 363

Chismon, Sgt, 384n

Chiswell, L-Sgt G. A., 480

Choa Chu Kang (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 315, 319, 321-2

Choa Chu Kang Road (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 291, 297, 299, 303, 315, 319, 321, 324-5, 327-8, 330, 335-6, 339, 356

Cholera, in Burma–Thailand, 547, 553, 556, 560, 569-70, 573-4, 575-6, 577, 579, 581, 584-5, 587

Chondong (Sketch p. 124), 142

Christmas Island (Map p. 42), 106

Christoff, Sgt G. J., 249

Chungkai (Sketch p. 563), 588-9, 591

Chungking (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 644), 16, 51, 643-4

Churchill, Rt Hon Sir Winston, 14, 46, 57, 75, 190, 191, 199, 252, 254, 256n, 292, 295, 306, 354, 371, 372n, 376, 383, 446, 648, 649

on Burma road closure, 21, 38

Far East reinforcement policy, 23-4, 26-7, 51-2, 56, 76, 81, 83, 91, 142n, 164, 253

and defence of Hong Kong, 50, 77, 107

Menzies’ assessment of, 82

visits USA, 91, 136, 169

naval reinforcement of Indian Ocean, 92

learns of sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse, 145

requests consideration of movement of 1 Aust Corps to Singapore, 163

on British reinforcement of Malaya, 182-3, 209-10

assigns ABDA Command to Wavell, 183-4, 201, 205

on defence of Singapore, 284-5, 341-2, reinforcement of, 286-7

destination of I Aust Corps, 447, 449-52, 460, 462, 465

proposes Wavell as C-in-C India, 458

Ciano, Count, 37

Clancy, Sister Veronica, 387n

Clark, Lt A., 402

Clark, Maj J. R. P., 394

Clarke, Brig D. W., 83n

Clarke, Lt G. R., 218

Clarke, Bdr H. V., 568, 626n

Clark Field (Map p. 178), 129

Clark Kerr, Sir Archibald, 93

Clayton, H. S., 683

Clemens, Lt P. W., 219

Clinton, Pte F. R., 410

Clissold, Pte T. B., 666

Clothing, in captivity, 514, 548n, 554, 575, 577n, 604, 618, 623, 638

Cluny Estate (Sketch p. 188), 194-5

Coast, Lt J., 515n, 566n

Coastwatchers, 398n, 656-7

Coates, Lt-Col Sir Albert, 389, 550n, 551, 555, 560, 589n

Coates, Col J. B., 325, 335, 340, 345, 348-9, 384, 388

commands 6/15 Indian Bde, 296

Cochrane, Pte J. R., 216n

Cockle Creek (Sketch p. 413), 414

Codes, Japanese, broken by America, 56, 90-91, 95, 108-9, 130-1

Coe, Pte J. C. G., 558

Cohen, Ma” R. H., 312

Collett, Pte F. G., 216n

Collins, Vice-Admiral Sir John, 163n, 495, 497, 499

Collins, Dvr W. D., 666-7, 672

Colomba Island, 523

Colombo (Sketch p. 448), 50, 122, 388, 447-8, 450n, 452, 457, 463, 499

Colvin, Admiral Sir Ragnar, 15, 80n

Combined Chiefs of Staff, 260, 457, 465

lack of Australian representation on, 184

creation of, 203

and destination of I Aust Corps, 444

recommend diversion of 7 Aust Div to Burma, 447

defence of Java, 456, 458-9

plan repatriation of prisoners of war, 632-3

issue directive to Supreme Commander ABDA Area, 646-9

Combined Defence Headquarters, at Halong, 423

at Koepang, 472

Communications, in Malaya, 64, 231n, 245

Communism, in Japan and China, 4

in Malaya, 204

Comoro River (Sketch p. 478), 479

Convoys, Allied, 53, 60-1, 221

Pensacola, 127, 474, 497

air protection of, 143, 163, 168, 191, 304n

naval protection of, 204, 205

from Middle East, 443n, 444-5, 446-7, 447-8, diverted to Burma, 450-2, 462-3, not tactically loaded, 464

to Timor, 474. Japanese, 154, 169, 305

Malaya invasion, 122-3, 123-4, 134-5, 265-6

Borneo invasion, 180, 416-17

New Britain invasion, 400

Ambon invasion, 427

Sumatra invasion, 453-4

Bali invasion, 456

Java invasion, 497

Cook, Capt G. R., 599, 601

Cook, Pte W., 667-8, 670-1

Coombes, J. H. H., 524n

Cooper, Lt J. H. 262, 276

Cootamundra,

Cootes, Lt R. J. G., 239

Corlette, Lt-Col E. L., 564n

Corney, Lt D. N., 484

Cornforth, Lt R. G. W., 319

Corregidor (Sketch p. 390), 177, 285, 287, 390

surrenders, 507

Cotter, W. P., see Knight, Pte P.

Couch, Capt N. W., 360, 364

Couch, Sgt R. J., 487

Cousens, Maj C. H., 315-16, 319, 321

Cox, Maj-Gen, 495

Cracknell, Gnr J. G., 527n

Craig, Lt C., 251n

Craigie, Sir Robert, 4n, 17n

Crankshaw, Maj T. P., 587

Crawford, Lt B. D. G., 232, 246

Credner Island (Sketch p. 394), 406

Crete, 154, 205, 257, 281, 345n, 418, 459n, 489n, 490n

Crispin, K. E.; see Penfold, A. W., Bayliss, W. C. and Crispin, K. E.

Croft, Sgt R. F. T., 247, 248

Croft, WO1 T. M. 504

Crosby, Sir Josiah, 141n

Culhane, Rev Father, 669-70

Cumming, Brig A. E., VC, 192, 348n

Cumming, Bdr T. S., 544n

Cummings, WO N. G., 600n

Curlewis, Capt A. H., 353-4, 377, 381n, 516, 573n

Curnow, Pte M. W. V., 248n

Curran, Lt K. S., 477, 479

Curtin, Rt Hon John, 57, 169, 287, 443-4, 462

challenges Singapore Base theory, 8

suggests test mobilisation of Australian forces, 57

approves dispatch of AIF to Ambon and Timor, 130

urges reinforcement of Singapore, 182, 209, 286

his “Australia looks to America” message, 183

requests Australian representation on United Command of forces resisting Japan, 184

criticises British Far East reinforcement policy, 252-3

expresses confidence in General Bennett, 385

proposes Australia as main base and return of AIF to, 446, 449, 450

judgment vindicated, 465

informed of diversion of 7 Aust Div to Rangoon, 451-2

seeks withdrawal of Orcades troops from Java, 456-7, 459

oilers two Australian brigades to augment Ceylon garrison, 460

Cutter, Sgt A. R. (Plate p. 495)

Cyprus, 104n

–D–

Dairen (Sketch p. 617), 639

Dalley, Lt-Col J. D., 293, 377

Dampier Strait (Sketch p. 658), 657

Danae, British cruiser, 498

Danaher, Sgt C. E. 544n

Darwin (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 439), 41, 44, 57, 69, 101, 122, 130, 169, 184, 201, 206, 258n, 260, 371, 418-19, 423-4, 426-7, 438, 443, 466-7, 468, 474, 497, 507, 520, 638

reinforcement of, 15, 43, 59, 76, 83

development of, 45, 89

included in ABDA Command, 259

bombing of, 450, 475, 482

casualties, 493

Carrier Fleet’s role in attack, 111

Davao (Map p. 178), 132, 177, 437

Davao Gulf (Map p. 178), 129

Davidson, Capt P. M., 606

Davies, Sgt J. L., 229, 242, 245

Davis, Gp Capt R. H., 534, 538-9

Dawkins, Maj C. B., 85, 86n, 167, 292-3, 297n, 309, 343

appointed BM 22 Bde, 29

killed, 351

Dawson, Lt-Col B. G., 405-6, 411, 663, 667, 673

De Abreu Ferriera De Carvalho, Manuel, 466n, 469-70, 471

Deakin, Brig C. C., 97n, 187, 193

De Crespigny, Maj J. C. Champion, 496

de Klerk, Japanese transport, 596

Delbridge, Cpl A., 476

Delhi, 202, 205, 461, 463

Del Conte Field (Map p. 178), 177

Demolitions

in Malaya, 142-3, 147, 160, 168, 212n, 213, 251, 261, 281, 283, 318, 326, 332-3, 341

in Borneo, 179-80, 417

at Rabaul, 400

in Ambon, 427

in Sumatra, 455

in Timor, 477, 482

Dempsey, Maj J., 474n

Dennis, Lt D. J. A., 415

Dennys, Maj-Gen L. E., 50-1, 643

Den Pasar Airfield, 475

Depression, Trade, 4, 5

Derham, Col A. P., 69, 86n

appointed ADMS 8 Div, 29

De Ruyter, Dutch cruiser, 454, 456, 497

sunk, 498

Deserters, from Singapore, 376, 383, 387, 388-9

De Sousa Santos, Antonio, 492-3

Detiger, Lt-Col, 467, 469-70, 484

Dever, Pte L. C., 218

Devil’s Peak Peninsula (Map p. 171), 173

Diarrhoea, 515, 570, 581

Dickinson, Gnr K. J., 550

Digney, Cpl H., 440

Dili (Sketches pp. 467, 478), 57, 466-7, 469, 470-2, 475, 476-7, 478-9, 480, 482, 491, 493

Dili Airfield (Sketch p. 478), 466, 481

Australians occupy, 470, 471

action at, 475-8

Dill, Field Marshal Sir John, 451n

Dillon, Brig F. J., 531, 576

Dipang (Sketch p. 188), 185, 187

Diphtheria, 585

Discipline

Australian

in Malaya, 96, 366, 377

in 2/21 Bn, 418

in captivity, 511-12, 515, 522, 531, 534, 543, 587, 605, 609, 610

British, 341

Indian, 113, 338, 535, 536-7

Dixon, Lt G. W. P., 414-15

Djambi (Sketch p. 384), 384n, 388

Djambi River, 384n

Djasinga (Sketch p. 500), 499, 500

Djaul Island (Sketch p. 413), 415

Double, Lt F. A., 321

Dobbie, Lt-Gen Sir William, 292

Dom) (Sketch p. 439), 439, 440

Doig, Capt C. D., 491

Dolamore, Capt W. H., 320-1

Dominican Republic, 200n

Dominions, The, 82, 109, 632

limitations placed on naval strength, 1

machinery for consultation, 649

Donaldson, Capt J. G., 406, 409-10, 655

Donohue, Capt K. G. C., 218

Doolan, Sgt A. A., 215, 216

Doorman, Rear-Admiral K. W. F. M., 453-4, 456, 497-8

Dorman-Smith, Sir Reginald, 108, 463

Douglas, Lt K. C., 658

Doyle, Mr, 414

Doyle, L-Cpl C. E., 476-7, 478-9

Draak, 671

Dragon, British cruiser, 498

Dragonfly, British gunboat, 264-5

Drina (Sketch p. 658), 671-2

Drummond, Matron Irene M., 386-7

Duff Cooper, Rt Hon Sir Alfred (later Lord Norwich), 93, 164, 288n, 303

appointed Minister of State in Far East, 91, 145

civil defence in Malaya, 191

on Malayan civil administration, 283

position as Resident Minister lapses, 204

Duffy, Lt-Col D. J., 213-14, 215-16, 217n, 264, 275-6, 331-2

Duke, Brig C. L. B., 235-6, 240-1, 244, 261, 264-5, 362, 368

Duke of York, British battleship, 92

Duke of York Islands (Sketch p. 394), 399

Dumas, Sgt H. S., 312

Duncan, Capt D. I. McI., 238

Duncan, Brig H. C., 226, 228-9, 231, 233, 238-9

commands 45 Indian Bde, 210

Duncan, Capt I. L., 628

Dunkirk, 144, 283

Dunkley, Maj C. R., 471, 481n

Dunlop, Col E. E., 533, 537, 562-3, 564, 566, 569, 571

Dunstan, Cpl L. W. H., 505

Duntroon, Australian transport, 634, 635

Durban, 169. 371

Durban, British cruiser, 61

Dusuns, Tits, 594

Dutch, The, 24-5, 38, 80, 109, 396, 420, 424n, 450, 457-8, 466, 472

relations with Japanese, 55, 110

Australian cooperation with, 59, 69, 76, 418

interests in Borneo, 179

aid escapers, 388, 389n, 439, 505

relations

with British, 447

with Portuguese, 471

with Indonesians, 502

Dutch Air Force

strength in Far East compared to Japanese, 59

in Malaya, 121n, 123, 141n. 223

in Borneo, 180

sinks Nana Maru, 417

in Ambon, 422, 423n, 426

strength in ABDA area, 442, in Java, 495

Dutch Army, 206, 439, 440

in Borneo, 181, 416-17

in Ambon, 421-2, 423n, 424, 425-6, 427-9, 430-1, 432, 434-5, 437

in Sumatra, 444, 453-4, 455

in Java, 441-3, 445, 495, 499, 500-1, 502-3, 675-6

in Timor, 467, 468n, 469-70, 471-3, 475-6, 478-9, 480-1, 483, 485, 490-1, 492n

Dutch Government, 93, 469, 475n, 646, 649

Dutch Navy, 205, 416-17, 422, 423n, 507

submarine operations, 125, 180, 417, 442

strength in Java area, 495

Dysentery, 426, 469, 515, 553, 555, 570, 577, 581, 585, 587, 590, 602, 613, 617

–E–

Eadie, Col N. M., 503, 550n

East Africa, 68, 255, 475n

East Asia, 3n, 22-3, 26, 28, 37, 41, 55, 127, 132n, 145, 507, 631

Japanese ambitions in, 14, 16, 37, 56, 132

British weaknesses, 17

British-American cooperation in, 38

defence plans, 40

retention of 8 Aust Div in, 59

trend towards war in, 74-5

unified Allied Command established, 201

see also Far East

Eastern Group Conference, 40

Eastern Group Supply Council, 40n

Eastwood, Capt, 587

Eather, Maj-Gen K. W., 85

Eaton, Lt R. W., 220, 330

Echo, Mt (Sketch p. 374), 370

Eden, Rt Hon Sir Anthony, 141n

Edgley, Capt J. L., 266-7, 268

Education, in captivity, 516-17, 535-6, 537

Edwards, Maj J. J., 496n

Eggleston, Sir Frederic, 92, 644

Egypt, 14, 19, 21, 23-4, 27, 35, 103, 205, 448

Ehehart, Capt J. H. W., 606

Eisenhower, Gen of Army, Dwight D., 88, 89n

urges development of Australia as American base, 177, 441

Ekuti Range, 673

Elliman, Cpl S. K., 529n

Elliott, Brig C. M. L., 85

Elrington, Lt-Col M., 241, 262-3

Elton, Lt J. R., 670

Emmahaven (Sketch p. 384), 388

Emmett, L-Bdr A. A., 544n

Empress of Asia, British transport, 304

Encounter, British destroyer, 455

Endau (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 99), 64-5, 98-9, 123, 153, 199, 207, 225, 250, 267

22 Aust Bde takes over defences, 98

withdrawal from, 251

Japanese invasion, 265-6

Endau, Sungei (Sketch p. 251), 98, 153, 251n, 266

Enggor (Map p. 158), 166

England; see Britain, Great

Enoggera, 31

Enterprise, American aircraft carrier, 440-1

Entertainment, in captivity, 515, 516-17, 531, 606, 620, 623, 627

Epstein, Cdr, 558

Equipment: Aust, 20

British, in Malaya, 44, 151

Japanese, 116-17, 543, 565, 574-5

Philippine Army, 90

Eretanwetan (Sketch p. 498), 499

Eri (Sketch p. 421), 429-30, 432, 434

dispositions at, 425

withdrawal to, 433

Ermera (Sketch p. 478), 471, 480

Escapes

from Singapore, 348n, 376-7, 378, 642, 650-2

from Ambon, 433, 436, 438-40. 604-5

from Timor, 491

from Borneo, 596-7, 602-3

from Hainan, 610

Japanese attitude to, 528, 535, 539, 543-4, 546-7, 595

Europe, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-15, 17-18, 23, 26, 37, 48n, 52, 54, 61, 71, 75, 78, 191n, 632

Europeans, The, in Malaya, 49, 64, 157, 190-1, 287

behaviour under air attack, 372

in NEI, 442

Evans, Lt L. A. R., 622

Evatt, Rt Hon Dr H. V., 204

Evertsen, Dutch destroyer, 498

Ewart, Maj A. C. M., 312, 319

Ewei (Sketch p. 658), 672

Executions

at Alexandra Barracks, 374

on Banka Island, 385-7

in Timor, 480

in captivity, 523, 543-4, 548, 550, 642

see also Massacres

Exeter, British cruiser, 454, 497-8, 618n

–F–

Faber, Mt (Sketch p. 374), 370

Fagan, Maj K. J., 583, 584

Fairbairn, Hon J. V., 32

Fairley, Maj J. G., 361, 377, 396

Far East, 2n, 9-10, 11, 18, 24, 50, 89, 94, 166n, 205, 287, 353, 365

discussion of term, 3n

trade relations in, 5, 7

stationing of British fleet in, 6-7

naval reinforcement of, 144, 146

British plans and policies, 7-8, 13, 17, 19-20, 51, 82-3

role of American fleet in, 12, 54

Japanese

ambitions, 17, 56

strength, 82

strategy, 371

German-Japanese collaboration, 75

British reinforcement policy, 46, 51-2, 54, 58, 76, 79, 80, 82, 92, 95, 145-6, 169, 189-90

demands subordinated by Beat-Hitler-First policy, 53, 103

policy criticised, 253

comparison of forces in, 59

publicity arrangements, 73-4

Allied coordination of command in, 81, 93, 183, 199-202, 256

British Resident Minister of State appointed, 91, 145

role of Hong Kong in, 170, 176

transfer of AIF to, 190, 444

British machinery for control of problems in, 191n

Japanese conquest of, 507-8

repatriation of prisoners, 632-44

see also East Asia

Far East Combined Intelligence Bureau, 82n, 137n, 376n

Far East Command, 81, 137, 201

C-in-C appointed, 46, 166

extent of, 50, Burma transferred to India Command, 146

AOC appointed, 77

lapses, 205

Far Eastern Council, London, 256

Far Eastern War Council, 43, 157, 164, 191

created, 145

becomes War Council, Singapore, 204

Farrel, Pte A. B., 232

Farrer Road (Sketch p. 360), 360-2, 369

Feis, H., 108n

FuroT, Cdr E. A., 398n, 657, 661

Ferguson, Capt G. B., 298n

Field, Sgt A. E., 536n, 636n

Field, Lt-Col Hon C. R., 662

Field, Maj D. F., 404, 654-5

Fifth Column, 168, 173

Figgis, Maj P. E., 406, 659, 664, 669n, 672-3

Fiji (Map p. 30), 19n, 441

Filipinos, The, 391, 595-6

Finschhafen (Sketch p. 658), 669

Fisher, Gnr H. M. M., 223n

Fisher, Maj W. E., 552n

Fisk, Lt-Col E. K., 373

Fleming, Maj F. A., 595-6

Fogden, H. W. T., 72

Foley, Paymaster Capt J. B., 80

Foochow (Map p. 112), 114

Food Supplies

Singapore, 354, 377

Bataan, 390-1

Forbes, Lt G. K., 683

Forde, Rt Hon F. M., 597, 599n, 638

Formidable, British aircraft carrier, 642

Formosa (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 630), 4n, 111. 113, 129, 132, 525, 614, 617-18

prisoners of war in, 611, 612-13, 629-30, 634

Formosan Guards, 598

Fort Canning (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 374), 294, 352, 354, 357, 371, 377, 380

Fort Rose Estate (Sketch p. 211), 230

Fort Stanley; See Stanley, Fort

Foster, Victoria, 84, 418

Foster, F., 537n, 683

Four Ways (Sketch p. 401), 396-7, 401, 404-5, 406-7, 408, 654

Fowler, Cpl J. F., 479, 492n

France, 12, 18-19, 26, 32, 38, 51, 71, 77-8, 89, 136n, 166, 255n, 258n, 397, 418, 424

naval strength fixed at Washington Conference, I

fall of, 14, 15

reaches agreement with Japan about bases in Indo-China, 87. See also French Government

Fraser, Admiral of the Fleet Lord, 642

Fraser, Capt A., 414-15

Fraser, Col W. E., 269n, 303-4, 325, 346, 351

Fraser’s Hill (Map p. 54), 64, 193

Fraser, Sgt A. L., 662, 670

Fremantle, 60, 61, 258n, 389, 457, 499

French, Pte J. St G., 558

French Government, 55

agrees to prohibit certain supplies through Indo-China, 16

yields to Japanese demands in Indo-China, 26, 87

French Navy, limitations placed on strength, 1

affects British strategy in Far East, 26

Frontiera Province (Sketch p. 478), 492

Fry, Lt-Col T. P., 651-2

Führer Conferences On Naval Affairs, 198n, 371n

Fuel, in captivity, 514, 532

Faked Marti, Japanese transport, 612

Fukuoka (Sketch p. 617), prisoners of war at, 626, 627-8, 640-1

Fukushima, Masao, 601n

Fukuye, Maj-Gen, 522-3, 528

Fusan (Sketch p. 617), 612

Fuses, 244n

–G–

Gahan, Capt N. J., 229

Galala, 606

Gale, Pte V. L., 523

Galleghan, Brig F. G., 210, 213-14, 220, 262-3, 275-6, 277n, 298, 301, 329, 511, 523, 525, 528-9, 530-1

commands 2/30 Bn, 35-36

disposes 2/30 at Gemas, 212-13

orders counter-attack, 217

commands AIF Changi, 522

Gallipoli, 30, 32-3, 424, 495

Gannon, Sig B. I., 478

Gap, The (Sketch p. 360), 361, 369-70

Gardening, in captivity, 513-14, 516, 524, 607-8

Garner, Sgt D. F., 213, 215-16

Garrard, Lt H. G., 409

Garrett, Brig K. A., 106n, 146-7, 149-50, 159

Garua (Sketch p. 658), 660, 673

Garut (Sketch p. 500), 532-3, 534

Gas, 276, 278n

Gaskin’s House, 406, 409

Gasmata (Sketch p. 658), 399, 669-70, 671

Gatenby, Lt N. R., 487

Gaven, Capt F., 358

Gazelle, Cape (Sketch p. 394), 399

Gazelle Peninsula (Sketch p. 654), 392, 396, 661

Geikie, Lt N. B. C., 213, 215-16

Geldard, Capt H. S., 382

Gemas (Sketches pp. 211, 212), 64, 182, 210, 212, 222-3, 225, 227, 230, 235, 249

recces of, 167, 198

road-block at, 217-21

Gemas, Sungei (Sketch p. 211), 217

Gemencheh, Sungei (Sketch p. 212), 217, 261

ambush at, 212-16

Geneva, 526

Geneva Convention, 220, 503, 562-3, 622

George VI, King, 136

Georgetown (Map p. 158), 156

German Army, 100, 205, 255, 270n

at Tsingtao, 113, 117

German Navy, 19, 371, 394

Germans, The, 395, 522

Germany, 7, 11, 14, 16, 54, 83, 135, 198, 210, 341, 442, 446, 543, 642

Pacific colonies annexed, I, 52

relations with Japan, 3-4, 13, 17, 75, 80, 110, 136

invades Norway, 15

assembles invasion fleet, 26

signs Tripartite Pact, 37

and Russia, 46n, 79, 87, 91, 145

and Greece, 51

Allied decision to concentrate against, 53, 189

Japanese military mission to, 133, 270n

effect of Japanese successes on, 371

Geser Island (Sketch p. 439), 439

Gibraltar, 24

Gibraltar Hill (Sketch p. 267), 100, 266

Gibson, Capt J. E. M., 313

Gibson, Pte N. R. C., 505

Gibson, WO W., 388n

Gilbert Islands (Map p. 30), 111

Gilingil Plantation (Sketch p. 413), 416

Gill, G. Hermon, 125n

Gillon, Maj L. M., 597

Gin Drinker’s Bay (Map p. 171), 129n

Gin Drinker’s Line (Map p. 171), 129, 170, 172

Glade Road (Sketch p. 401), 407-8, 410

Gladstone, Prime Minister, 92n

Glasgow, Maj R. V., 613, 622n

Glasgow, Maj-Gen Hon Sir William, 34

Glassford, Vice-Admiral W. A., 416-17

Glasson, Lt D. J. R., 229

Glodok Gaol, 534, 538-9

Gloucester, Cape (Sketch p. 658), 657

Glover, Bdr A. W., 544n

Glynn, Pte V. P., 665

Gnair, 660-1

Goble, Air Vice-Marshal S. J., 53n

Gong Kedah Airfield (Sketch p. 124), 121n, 125, 142

Goode, Capt A. E., 413-14

Good Hope, Cape of, 182

Goodman, Capt C. E., 665, 672

Gopeng (Sketch p. 188), 185, 187

Gordon, Capt O. L., 618n

Gordon, WO2 V. M. I., 213, 215

Gort, Field Marshal Viscount, VC, 46n, 166

Goulburn, 31

Government House, Singapore (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 374), 304, 361, 373

Grant, Lt W. G., 402-3, 404-5, 407

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Scheme, 56

Greece, 51-2, 54, 85, 200n, 255, 257, 345n, 418, 446, 451n, 452

Green, Lt-Col C. E., 541-2, 546-7, 549, 551, 553

Greener, Capt H. L., 517, 521-2, 683

Greiner, Maj H. G., 564

Grenfell, Capt Russell, 8n

Grew, Joseph C., 17, 55

Griffin, Sgt D., 513n, 515n, 636n

Griffin, Capt R. S., 322, 359, 545n, 554n

Griffin, V. Murray, 516

Grik (Map p. 158), 64, 156, 159, 160-2, 165-6

Grisek (Sketch p. 211), 222

Grogm, Capt J. D’O., 488

Grovelly, 31, 36

Groves, Gnr A. T., 527n

Growns, Cpl F. W., 479

Grunert, Maj-Gen George, 89

Guadalcanal (Map p. 30), 396

Guam (Map p. 30), In, 127, 177, 411

Japanese plan, 111

attack on, 128, 132, 176

Guerrilla Warfare, 84, 186, 426-7, 438

in Timor, 480-2, 492n

in Java, 502, 505-6

on Batu Batu, 595, 596

on Tawitawi, 597

in Borneo, 603

in China, 643-5

failure to wage in New Britain, 659

Guild, Capt D. D., 502, 504-5

Gullett, Hon Sir Henry, 32

Gunong Pulai (Map p. 262), 273

Guntershohe (Sketch p. 654), 655-6

Gurun (Map p. 158), 149, 150-1, 157

withdrawal from, 159

–H–

Haad Yai (Map p. 54), 64

Hackney, Lt B. C., 227, 233n, 239-40, 245-6, 247-8

Hagen, Mt (Sketch p. 658), 661n

Hague Convention, 520

Japanese interpretation of, 528, 546n, 562

Haicho, 608

Haig, Field Marshal Earl, 32

Hainan Island (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 88), 11, 19, 114, 134, 593n, 615

prisoners of war on, 608-11, 633

liberation and repatriation, 638-9

Hainan-To Harbour, 615

Haiphong (Map p. 30), 16

Haiti, 200n

Hakarta (Sketch p. 617), 626, 641

Hale, Sgt K. G., 403n

Halifax, 183n

Halifax, Rt Hon Earl, 53n

Halilulik (Sketch p. 467), 491

Hallam, D’Arcy, 660

Halmahera Island (Map p. 30), 420

Halong (Sketch p. 421), 420, 422, 423n, 426, 428

Area Combined HQ at, 423-4

Hamaguchi, Eizo, 2

Hamill, Cpl R. J. S., 669

Hamilton, General Sir Ian, 3

Hamilton, Capt J. McK., 655

Hamilton, Lt-Col T., 541, 544n, 550n, 554n

Hancock, Sig P., 479, 492n

Hands, Capt J. L., 564

Hankow (Sketch p. 644), 643

Hann, L-Cpl I. G., 216

Hanoi (Map p. 30), 16

Harikawa, Maj, 434-5

Harris, Rev Father, 671

Harris, Capt F. L., 232, 248

Harris, Capt G. C., 660, 673

Harris, Lt-Col S. W., 572-3, 576, 580-1

Hart, Admiral T. C., 122

appointed Chief of Naval Staff ABDACOM, 205

Hartley, General Sir Alan, 458

Harvey, WO2 C. R., 415

Harvey, Sig H. F., 597

Harvey’s Plantation (Sketch p. 654), 656

Hasson, Pte J., 475

Hata, General Shunroka, 16-17

Hatu-Lia (Sketch p. 478), 480-1, 493

Hawaii (Maps pp. 30, 112), 1, 18, 53, 75, 80, 111, 126, 132n, 253, 451n

American acquisition of, 4n

air link with Philippines established, 89

Japanese plan surprise attack on, 110

Hawker, C. A. S., 6n

Hawkins, Pte G. A., 436

Haydon, Professor J. F. M., 9n

Haves, Lt-Cdr J. O. C., 283

Hayes, Pte K. M., 480

Hayman, Pte V. J., 357

Hazelgrove, Gnr M. 667, 671

Hazelton, Capt A. R., 567

Head, Lt H., 213, 216

Head, Maj P. L., 86n, 279n, 522n

Headlam, Air Commodore F., 469

Headlam, WO2 J. M., 655, 657, 659-60

Heath, Lt-Gen Sir Lewis, 96, 100, 106, 124, 142, 149, 150-1, 156, 160-1, 162, 181, 191-2, 193, 197-8, 199, 203, 214, 231, 244n, 251, 254, 257, 259, 260-1, 262, 268, 271, 279, 282, 303, 325, 338-9, 352, 354, 358-9, 360-1, 512, 613

arrives Malaya, 78

career, 79

recommends withdrawal from Kelantan, 153

orders evacuation of Penang, 160

orders withdrawal from Kuantan, 192

placed in command Muar front, 230

issues program for withdrawal to Singapore Is, 269-70

allots command of bridgeheads, 272

Comds Northern Area, 293, 336-7

abandons Naval Base area, 357

Heathcote, Lt C. T., 321

Heather, launch, 384n

Heckendorf, Sgt E. E., 216

Hum., Col Robert D., 127n

Heito (Sketch p. 630), 629

Helfrich, Vice-Adm C. E. L., 497

commands Allied Navy in Java, 495

resigns command, 499

“Hell Fire Pass”, 568-9

Hellyer, Maj L. H., 544

Hely, Air Vice-Marshal W. L., 41n

Hendy, Lt L. F. G., 218, 355

Hengyang (Sketch p. 644), 644

Henman, Lt O. R. T., 251n

Hennessy, Col P., 175n

Henry, Lt L. D., 402

Henry Reid River (Sketch p. 654), 665

Herald (Melbourne), 287n

Herstein, Norwegian merchantman, 399, 674

Hillview Estate (Sketch p. 347), 297

Hilton, Pte E. P., 218

Hintok (Sketch p. 563), 564-5, 567, 569, 570-1, 582, 586

Hintok Road Camp (Sketch p. 563), 564, 566

Hirohito, Emperor

see Japan, Emperor of Hiroshima (Sketch p. 617), 621

Hiroshima Prisoner-of-War Camp 9B, 625n

Hirota, Lt, 570

Hiryu, Japanese aircraft carrier, 427

Historical Section, U.K. Cabinet Office, xii, 507n

Hitler, Adolf, 53, 54, 81, 198-9, 200n, 326n, 371

on collaboration with Japan, 75

conceals decision to attack Russia from Japan, 80

on Pearl Harbour, 136

Hitu-Lama (Sketch p. 421), 421, 425, 427-8, 435, 437

Hitu Peninsula (Sketch p. 421), 420, 428

Hobart, Australian cruiser, 60-1, 454, 497-8

Hochi (Sketch p. 644), 643

Hodgson, Lt-Col W. R., 204, 288

Hokkaido Island (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 617), 614, 618

Holbrook, American transport, 474

Holland, 14, 16, 18, 77, 256, 442, 447, 507

represented at December 1941 Singapore Conference, 163

signs United Nations Declaration, 200n

Holland, Capt F., 659, 660, 666n, 672

Holland Road (Map p. 344; Sketch p. 360), 326, 338, 346, 350-1, 358, 363-4, 369

Hollow, Pte A. R., 481n

Holly, Pte C. J., 478-9

Holmes, Col E. B., 528, 530

commands British and Australian troops in Changi, 522

Holmes, Maj-Gen W., 392

Holmes, Pte W., 409

Homer, Lt R., 305

Homma, Lt-Gen Masaharu, 390-1, 507

Hong Kong (Maps pp. 30, 171), 6, 11, 16, 41, 47, 82n, 127, 132, 179, 284, 373, 437, 453, 494, 497, 623, 639, 643

passage of war materials to China prohibited, 21

value of, 50

reinforcement of, 58, 77, 95

British strength on, 107-8

Japanese plans, 111

attack on, 128-9

fall of, 170-76

Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, 107, 173, 175

Honshu Island (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 617), 613, 619, 621

Hook, L-Cpl R. L., 350

Hooper, Pte N. S. W., 478

Hopkins, Harry L., 450-1

Hopkins, Sgt R. C. (Plate p. 495)

Hore, Maj F., 336, 339

Horii, Maj-Gen Tomitaro, 411, 412

Comds South Seas Force, 410

Hornet, American aircraft carrier, 440

Hosada, Lt, 548

Hoshijima, Capt Susumi, 595

Hoskins, Cape (Sketch p. 658), 673

Houston, American cruiser, 90, 474, 497, 533

sinks, 498

Howells, Capt E. R., 219, 356

Hudson, Pte W. D., 477

Hughes, Colonel, 174

Hughes, Maj L., 236, 245

Hughes, Rt Hon W. M., 7

states problem of Japan in Pacific, 1-2

argues against reliance on British Navy, 8

“Hughesliers”, 174

Hukunaga, WO, 609

Hull, Cordell, 17, 18, 22n, 25, 39, 52n, 53, 56, 91n, 132n

supports Lend-Lease, 55

negotiates with Admiral Nomura, 87, 94-5, 108, 130-31

Humphries, Lt-Col H. R., 581, 583, 585-6

Hunan Province (Sketch p. 644), 16

Hunt, Maj B. A., 573-4, 575-6

Hunt, Maj G. P., 522n

Hunt, Sgt H. C., 660

Hunt, Capt W. G., 245

Huntley, Cpl N. L. S., 216

Hutton, Lt K. W.. 350

Hutton, Lt-Gen Sir Thomas, 108n, 206, 461-3

Hutumori (Sketch p. 421), 428, 437

Hynes, Cpl T. E., 505

–I–

Iba Field (Sketch p. 88), 129

Ibbott, Lt A. G. C., 237

Iboki (Sketch p. 658), 660-1, 673

Ibrahim, H. E., Sir, Sultan of Johore, 48n, 98, 102, 242, 273, 357, 366, 389

Ikeuchi, Lt, 608

Ikuno (Sketch p. 617), 621

Ilgen, Maj-Gen, 495

Imlach, Cpl W., 558

Imperial Conference of 1937, 6

Imperial Defence College, 32, 78, 166

Imperial Prisoners-of-War Committee, 632

Inderagiri River (Sketch p. 384), 385, 388

India, 7, 9, 25-6, 28, 32, 40-1, 43-4, 51, 57, 63, 73, 95, 108, 111, 146, 201, 210n, 285, 290n, 348n, 371, 384n, 387, 389, 445, 449, 451n, 458, 462-3, 464-5, 507, 521-2, 529n, 550, 631, 634, 644-5, 677

drawn upon for reinforcements, 19, 49, 79, 160-1

proposal to train AIF in, 20

defence of, 58

relations with Britain, 103-4

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

and ABDA directive, 202, 646, 648

Indian Army, 45, 202, 272, 514, 523n, 524, 644, 676

strength in Malaya, 13, 49, 77, 102

reinforcement of, 184, 189, 258

expansion and distribution, 19, 44, 79, 95, 104n

recruits officers from 1st AIF, 31

training of, 68

reinforces Burma, 79, strength in Burma, 108

compared with Japanese Army, 82n

lacks representation on Malaya Command, 97

estimate of, 103-4

strength in Hong Kong, 107, 170

effect of Japanese tanks on, 147

strength on Singapore Island, 289-90

discipline, 338

casualties in Malaya, 382

strength in Java, 497n

–India Command: Burma included in, 108n, 146, 456, 461, removed from, 201

Wavell proposed as C-in-C, 458

–Corps

III, 93, 146n, 153, 158, 167-8, 169, 215, 233, 304, 512

arrives Malaya, 78

composition and distribution, 79, 106n

role, 97, 106, quality of, 103

in Malaya, 98, 124, 140, 142, 198, 199, 202-3, 206-7, 212, 214, 225, 236, 279, 282

reinforcement of, 160-1, 164

condition assessed, 250

role on Singapore Island allotted, 254, 293

on Singapore Island, 272, 294, 296, 301, 329, 336

–Divisions, distribution of, 95

4th, 19, 104n

5th, 19, 79, 104n, 637

6th, 19, 104n

7th, 19

8th, 19, 104n

9th, 104n, 142, 155, 187, 207, 241

formed, 19

arrives Singapore, 77

deployment, 79

composition, 106n

reinforcement of, 161, 184

a Kuantan, 163, 168, 191-2

in Johore, 203, 206 209-11, 231, 235, 260, 262, 270, 274, 277, 281-2

on Singapore Island, 293, 296

10th, 10, 104n

11th, 104n, 140, 146, 162-3, 165, 198, 207, 241, 254, 340, 364, 512, 514n

arrives Malaya, 49

deployment, 79

composition, 106n

reinforcement 161, 184

in Malaya, 72, 106, 138, 150-1, 157, 159-60, 166, 192, 194, 196-7

reorganisation of 163, 203

in Johore, 207, 203-9, 225, 257, 259 260-1, 270, 273, 279, 281, 282-3

on Singapore Island, 293-4, 330, 336, 343, 354, 361, 369, 373

14th, 19n

17th, 19n, 160, 210n, 461-2, 464

19th, 19n

20th, 19n

34th, 19n, 459

–Brigades, allocation of British regular battalions to, 104

6th, 104

arrives Malaya, 49

composition, 106n

at Jitra, 146-7, 149, 150-1

at Gurun, 159, 160

amalgamated with 15th Bde, 163

6th/15th, 166, 193, 207, 241, 384, 388

formed, 163

at Kampar, 181, 185, 187

covers withdrawal, 189, 193

at Slim River, 194

at Batu Pahat, 231, 259, 260

withdraws, 261, 264-5

dispersed, 271

on Singapore Island, 296, 325, 328, 335-6, 340, 343, 345-7, 348-9, 350

8th, 207, 192

arrives Malaya, 49

composition, 106n

at Kota Bharu, 106, 125, 137-8, 142

withdraws from Kelantan, 153, 155

in Johore, 211. 235, 240, 257, 260, 262, 270, 273-5, 277, 282

on Singapore Island, 293, 296, 342, 357, 364

12th, 67, 70, 79, 97n, 98, 104, 106, 156, 162, 166, 333, 384

composition, 106n

in Malaya, 153, 160, 162-3, 166, 181, 184, 187, 189, 193, 194-6

withdrawn to Singapore, 207

reorganised, 225n

on Singapore Island, 293, 317, 323-4, 327, 335-6, 339, 343, 345-6, 350, 357

13th, arrives Burma, 79

15th, 104, 160

composition, 106n

at Jitra, 146-7, 149, 151

at Gurun, 159

amalgamated with 6th Bde, 163

16th, in Burma, 79, 461

22nd, 125, 231

composition. 106n

at Kuantan, 31, 191

in Johore, 211, 240, 257, 260, 262, 270, 273, 274-5, 277, 279, 281n

loss of, 277n, 281n, 282, 293, 300

28th, 106, 140, 241

arrives Singapore, 93, 95

composition, 106n

at Jitra, 146-7, 149, 151

withdraws to Kampar, 159, 160, 166, 181, 185, 188

at Slim River, 189, 193-5, 196

in Johore, 260, 273, 279, 281

on Singapore Island, 298, 329-30, 333, 357, 364

44th, 336-7, 343, 365, 377

reinforces Malaya, 189

arrives Singapore, 258

history, 290

on Singapore Island, 293, 296-7, 299, 304, 308, 315-16, 323, 325-6, 328, 335, 340, 358, 361, 363-4, 369, 370

45th, 231, 258, 290n, 299

diverted to Malaya, 160-1, 184

arrives Singapore, 189

role in Johore, 203, 206

in Muar battle, 210, 222, 225-6, 228-30, 233, 235-6

losses, 249

46th, 461

63rd, 464

–Columns: Krohcol, 140, 146, 150, 156, 160

Laycol, 140, 146

–Artillery, lack of, 19

10 Mountain Bty, 146, 160

21 Mountain Bty, 125

22 Mountain Regt, 146-7

–Cavalry: 3rd Cav Regt, 156n, 261, 353

–Independent Companies: 1st, 162, 165, 186-7, 189, 193

–Infantry Battalions

2/10 Baluch, 10617, 125, 211, 274, 296, 343, 354-5, 359, 364

2/17 Dogra, 106n, 207, 251

3/17 Dogra, 106n, 125, 137, 211

2/12 Frontier Force Regt, 106n, 125, 138, 155, 192-3, 211

1/13th Frontier Force Rifles, 106n, 125, 138, 211, 230, 296

2/18 Garhwal, 106n, 192, 211, 257, 260

reformed as Garhwal Battalion, 296

5/18 Garhwal, 222, 224, 226-7, 229, 236, 262

reformed as Garhwal Battalion, 296

Garhwal Battalion, 296

2/1 Gurkha, 106n, 147-8, 151, 189, 194, 195-6

2/2 Gurkha, 106n, 149, 150-1, 188, 194, 279, 333

2/9 Gurkha, 106n, 149, 150-1, 157, 166, 194-5

4/19 Hyderabad, 106n, 142, 166, 194, 293, 325, 336, 339, 343-4, 345

2/9 Jat, 106n, 147, 149, 150, 251

reformed as Jat Battalion, 296

4/9 Jat, 222, 224, 226, 228-9, 231, 233-4, 236, 239

reformed as Jat Battalion, 296

Jat Battalion, 296, 340, 345, 348

6/1 Punjab, 297, 299, 340

5/2 Punjab, 97n, 106n, 161, 165-6, 187, 193, 194

1/8 Punjab, 106n, 140, 147, 159, 251

7/8 Punjab, 297, 299, 340

1/14 Punjab, 106n, 147, 149

2/14 Punjab, 172-3

5/14 Punjab, 106n, 146, 149, 156, 160, 189, 194-5

6/14 Punjab, 297, 299, 340

2/15 Punjab, 106n, 121, 179-80, 181, 533

2/16 Punjab, 106n, 140, 147, 159

3/16 Punjab, 106n, 140, 146, 149, 156, 160, 166. 231, 235, 241, 261, 296, 340

5/7 Rajput, 172-3, 174-5

7/6 Rajputana Rifles, 222, 223-4, 226, 229, 236

5/11 Sikh, 106n, 211, 235, 260, 262, 270, 277n, 353

–Labour Companies, 107

–Medical: Alexandra Mil Hospital, 374

Tyersall Base Hospital, 359

–State Forces, 106n

Bahawalpur Infantry, 296

1st Hyderabad, 125

Jind Infantry, 299, 319, 322-3

1st Mysore State Infantry, 125

Indian Congress Party, 103-4

Indian Ocean (Sketch P. 448), 23, 41, 47, 106, 182, 201, 290, 371. 459, 463, 497

British strength in, 43-4

reinforcement of, 45, 82, 92, 145, 189, 253

Japanese supremacy in, 508

Indians, The, in Burma, 50

in Malaya, 64n, 65, 209

Indo-China (Maps pp. 30, 112), 11. 16, 18-19, 21, 39, 41, 56n, 59, 75-6, 94, 102, 108n, 111, 121, 123, 126, 134, 141n, 154, 162, 180, 284, 290, 444n, 446, 507n, 608, 611, 614, 648

Japanese gain air bases in, 24-5, 26, 87, 111

signs Peace Treaty with Thailand, 55-6

Japanese strength in, 114, 292

prisoners of war in, 633, 634

Indomitable, British aircraft carrier, 92

Indonesia, Republic of See Netherlands East Indies

Indonesians, The, 387, 424, 433-4, 442, 533

relations With Dutch, 502

Indorf, Lt Louis, 621n

Induna Star, 412, 413, 415-16

Ingleburn, 31

Inishi, Rear-Admiral, 56n

Intelligence, 57, 162, 501, 594

Allied, 8-10, 57, 67, 114n, 131, 196, 443-4

of Japanese Army, 20, 82n, 172

of Japanese Air Force, 58, 82, 137

Japanese, 74, 115-16, 306-7, 411n

Ipoh (Map p. 158; Sketch p. 188), 140, 146n, 151, 153, 163, 181, 184, 185, 207

Ipoh Airfield (Map p. 105), 168, 221

Iran; see Persia

Iraq, 77, 103. 104n, 145, 205

Indian Army reinforcement of, 79, 95

Irio, Sgt, 628

Iron Ore, 18n, 38

Irrawaddy River (Sketch p. 461), 16, 464

Irving, Brig R. G. H., 85

Iskandor (Map p. 158), 166

Island Golf Club (Maps pp. 286, 344), 357, 364

Ismay, Gen Rt Hon Lord, 27, 163-4, 452n

Italian Air Force, 82

Italian Army, 19, 27, 79, 255

Italian Navy, 1, 19, 39, 51

Italy, 1, 23, 33, 51, 54, 135, 210, 522, 642

signs 10-year pact with Germany and Japan, 37

Japanese military mission to, 133

Itchioka Stadium Hospital, 621, 623

Ito, Maj-Gen Takeo, 434, 436-7

–J–

Jack, Lt-Col A. G., 440, 604

Jacobs, J. W., 683

Jacquinot Bay (Sketch p. 658), 671

Jakarta: see Batavia

Jaluit (Map p. 30), 441

Jamaica, 92

James, Capt D. H., 371n

Jane, Sgt H. A., 655, 659

Japan (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 617), 19-20, 33, 43-4, 45-6, 51-2, 61, 66, 69n, 73-4, 76-7, 89, 91, 123, 126, 129, 133, 135, 141, 166, 176-7, 179, 182-4, 191n, 200, 201n, 202, 205, 252-3, 256n, 259, 286, 391-2, 410, 418, 434n, 442, 446, 449, 451n, 452, 456, 460, 466, 469, 472, 474, 497, 503, 519, 545-6, 563, 630, 643, 646, 675-7

granted mandate over German colonies in Western Pacific, 1

problems of, 1-2

attacks China in Manchuria, 3, 10-11

relations with Germany, 3-4, 14, 38, 75, 80, 87, 136, 270n, 371

trade developments, 5-6, 7, 39

language studied in Australia, 9-10

remains aloof from European war, 13

and Netherlands Indies, 15-16

attempts to seal supply routes to China, 17, 21-2

relations with America, 17-18, 22

assets frozen, 87. 90

relations ruptured, 108-9, 130-1

Australian Minister appointed, 23

gains bases in Indo-China, 24-6, 39, 56, 87, 140

threat posed by, 27, 93-4

Australian Food Relief Mission to, 28

conjectural role in event of war, 41, 58-9, 114n

and Thailand, 50, 55-6

British plans to forestall in, 92, 122

Allied strategy, 53, 80-3

reduces staffs in Australia, 57

relations with Russia, 55, 78-80, 93

diplomatic communications intercepted, 56, 90n, 108-9

plans offensive, 109-113, 121

scope of offensive, 127, 131-2, 507-8

movement of prisoners to, 524-5, 539, 589, 593, 611-16, 674, 679

prisoners of war in, 616-29

release and repatriation, 632-3, 634-5, 640-2

Japan, Emperor of, 56n, 109, 113, 631, 640, 641

Japanese, The, 1-3, 65-6, 74, 285, 341, 373, 380, 466, 512, 514, 518, 522, 528, 533, 535, 536-7, 539, 543-4, 556, 562-3, 568, 591, 595, 596-7, 598-9, 600, 605, 609-10, 618-19, 625-6, 628-29, 630

Intelligence estimate of, 67

relations with British, 80

code of behaviour, 113

massacre prisoners, 246-8, 374, 386-7, 410, 436, 603, 604, 665-9

ill-treat sick, 565, 569, 570, 572-3, 576-7, 579, 584. 588-9, 609. 623, 632

treatment of subject peoples, 553n, 587-8

Japanese Air Forces, 111, 121, 128, 129-30, 138, 205, 251, 278n, 282, 363, 416, 453, 519n, 530

estimates of, 58, 82, 131, 137, 172

strength, 59, 115, performance, 144

attack Pearl Harbour, 126-7

attack Philippines, 132, 177

in Malayan campaign. 134, 137, 141, 142-3, 156, 168, 181, 187, 207, 217, 221, 223, 230, 233, 242, 243, 270, 304

attack Prince of Wales and Repulse, 143, 144

in Borneo, 180

efficacy of attacks on ground troops, 263n

in attack on Singapore Island, 287, 289, 299, 317, 320, 352, 362, 367, 381-2, role, 306, 308, losses, 365

in Bismarcks campaign, 398-400, 412

in attack on Ambon, 423, 426-7, 437

attack Rangoon, 463

in Timor campaign, 473-4, 483-4, 489

attack Darwin, 475, 493

in Java campaign, 506

achievements, 508

–Air Corps

3rd, 381

12th, 381

57th, 381

–Air Fleets: Eleventh, 56n

–Air Flotillas

21st, 144

22nd, 144

24th, 111, 411

–Air Groups: 3rd, 134

Japanese Army, 22, 55n, 79-80, 117, 125, 129, 133, 138, 146-7, 149-50, 151-2, 153-4, 156-7, 159, 161, 165, 170, 186, 205, 207, 209, 212, 217n, 220-1, 224-5, 229, 246-8, 249, 250, 267, 284, 304, 305-7, 333, 353, 366-7, 374, 376, 378-9, 382-3, 385, 390-1, 410-12, 427, 435, 464, 480-1, 485-6, 493, 520, 545-6, 552-3, 560, 596, 631

political influence, 2

blockades British Concession area in Tientsin, 10

estimates of, 20, 82n, 100, 172, 278n

quality and characteristics, 113-14

strength and dispositions, 135, 162, 290, 341, 437n, 488

establishes technical missions in Berlin and Rome, 38

invades Indo-China, 87

staff and intelligence organisation, 115-16

tactics, 116, 155, 166-7, 172, 176, 196, 472-3

employment of water transport, 333-4. achievements in Malaya, 382

attitude to Hague and Geneva Conventions, 503, 562-3

casualties, 507 -Area Armies: Organisation of, 115

Kwantung Army, 3

Southern Army, 115

composition, 110-11, 114

achievements, 507-8

–Armies: organisation of, 115

XIV, 110, 111, 390, 507n

XV, 110, 111, 134, 186-7, 507n

XVI, 133n, 490, 506

composition, 110-11, 507n

XXIII, 173

XXV, 116, 333, 374n

composition, 110-11, 507n

experience, 114

plans attack on Malaya, 133-4

move to, 134-5

–Divisions: number and distribution of, 114

organisation, 115

Guards, 111

history of, 114

composition, 113n

in Thailand, 134

in Malaya, 186-7, 207-8, 224, 228, 230, 246, 258-9, 265, 269

in attack on Singapore Island, 306-7, 331, 333-4, 352, 354, 366-7, 373, 503, 507n

2nd, 111

in Java, 497, 499, 507n

4th, in Philippines, 507

5th, 111

history, 114

composition, 133n

in Malaya, 133-5, 150n, 151, 186, 189, 193, 196, 207, 220, 249, 262-4, 269, 507n

in attack on Singapore Island, 306, 316-17, 333-4, 350, 352, 366-7, 373, 379

16th, 111, 177, 507

18th, 111, 133, 180, 269, 380

history, 114

composition, 133n

in Malaya, 134, 207, 507n

in attack on Singapore Island, 306, 316-17, 334, 347, 350, 352, 359, 363, 366-7, 369

21st, 11 1, 507

33rd, 111

in Burma, 461, 507n

38th, 111, 497

at Hong Kong, 173

in Ambon, 434, 436-7

in Sumatra, 453

in Timor, 490

in Java, 507n

48th, 111

in Philippines, 177, 390

in Java, 497, 499, 507n

55th, 111, 134

drawn upon for South Seas Force, 410

in Burma, 461, 507n

56th, 111, 133, 134

–Brigades, 114

9th Infantry, 133, 149, 220

21st Infantry, 111, 133, 220

23rd Infantry, 133n

35th Infantry, 133n, 180

56th Infantry, 507n

65th Infantry, 111, 390, 507

–Forces: Mukaide, 220

South Seas, 410-12, 490

–Regiments: infantry organisation, 115

3rd Konoye, 133n

4th Konoye, 133n, 189, 193, 207, 208, 224, 249, 259, 261, 331

5th Konoye, [133n], 207, 224, 230, 265

11th, 133, 149, 189, 193, 220 21st, 133n, 207, 220

41st, 133, 149, 150n, 189 42nd, 133, 149, 151, 162, 193, 196, 220

55th 133n, 269

56th, 111, 133-4, 191, 359, 416, 490, 497, 499

62nd, 507n

114th, 133, 359

124th, 133n, 134, 180

143rd, 134

144th, 111, 410, 411-12

228th, 173-4, 437, 490, 493-4

229th, 173-4, 175, 453

230th, 173-4, 497, 499, 500-1

–Armoured Units: 488

regimental organisation, 115

3rd Tank Group, 133n

1st Medium Tank Regt, 133n, 220, 306

2nd Medium, 133n

5th Reconnaissance Regt, 150n

6th Medium Tank Regt, 133n

14th Light Tank Regt, 133n, 306

–Artillery: 270n

regimental organisation, 115

employed against Singapore Island, 303, 305-6, 308, 367

strength available, 327

ammunition shortage, 373-4

expenditure, 380

3rd Independent Mountain Regt, 133n

3rd Heavy Field Arty Regt, 133n

18th Heavy Field Arty Regt, 133n

17th Field Air Defence Unit, 133n

21st Heavy Field Arty Bn, 133n

3rd Trench Mortar Bn, 133n

5th Trench Mortar Bn, 133n

14th Indep Mortar Bn, 133n

–Engineers, 116

4th Indep Engr Regt, 133n

15th Indep Engr Regt, 133n, 410

23 Indep Engr Regt, 133n

5th Indep Heavy Bridging Coy, 133n

21st Bridging Material Coy, 133n

22nd Bridging Material Coy, 133n

27th Bridging Material Coy, 133n

10th River Crossing Material Coy, 133n

15th River Crossing Material Coy, 133n

21st River Crossing Coy, 133n

–Infantry Battalions: strength assembled for attack on 22 Bde front, Singapore Island, 306, 316

–Miscellaneous Units: 96th Airfield Bn, 266

1st Balloon Coy, 133n

–Paratroops, 453, 483-5, 486, 489-90, 493

–Police: Kempei, 117, 503, 535, 537, 591, 598-9

2nd Field Military Police Unit, 133n

–Railway Units: Southern Army Railway Corps, 545

2nd Railway Unit, 133n

5th Railway Regiment, 545

9th Railway Regiment, 545, 589n

–Signals Units: equipment of, 116

25 Army Signal Unit, 133

Japanese Government, 22, 365, 391, 562

influence of armed forces, 2

treatment of prisoners of war, 679-81

–Japanese Planning Board, 109

Japanese Mandated Islands (Map p. 30), 1, 59, 80, 397

Japanese Navy, 23-4, 38, 56n, 80, 134, 177, 371, 373, 399, 410, 414, 433, 605

strength fixed at Washington Conference, 1

China proposes sneak attack on, 39

battleship strength, 92

plans attack on Pearl Harbour, 110

strength and organisation, 114-15, 145

attacks Midway, 128

in Pearl Harbour attack, 132

off Endau, 265-6

in Bali Island action, 456

in Java campaign, 497, 506

achievements of, 507-8

–Fleets: Combined Fleet, 110, 132, 437n

First, 111

Second, 111

Third, 111, 179

Fourth, 111, 398, 410, 411

Carrier Fleet, 111, 132, 427, 441, 493, 497

–Forces: Southern, 115, 134

–Midway Neutralisation Unit, 132

–Special Naval Landing Forces, 410, 427

organisation of, 114

Kashima, 414n

1st Kure, 437, 490

2nd Kure, 416, 490

6th Kure, 114

Maizuru, 414n

Sasebo, 417, 490

1st Yokosuka, 490

2nd Yokosuka, 180

3rd Yokosuka, 490

–Submarines, 126, 132, 143-4, 371

Japanese Red Cross, 526

Jardine’s Lookout (Map p. 171), 174

Jasin (Sketch p. 99), 100

Java (Map p. 30; Sketches pp. 498, 500), 76, 181, 202, 205-6, 260, 266, 271, 281, 371-2, 381n, 383-4, 385, 387, 388-9, 421, 447-8, 451n, 452-3, 454, 460, 463, 466, 469, 474-5, 490-1, 546, 549, 557-8, 561-2, 593, 606, 614, 616, 646, 678

Japanese plan attack, 110-11, 390, 497

Allied strength in, 442, 445, 456, 458, 495-6

planned employment of I Aust Corps in, 443, 444-5, 446-7, 451n, 457, 459, 463, 675-7

evacuation of, 458

organisation and role of Blackforce, 496-7

invasion, 497-505

guerrilla warfare in, 505-6

Japanese strength in, 507n

prisoners of war in, 511, 532-9, 541, 633, 681

repatriation, 634, 638

Java, Dutch cruiser, 454, 456, 497-8

Java Sea (Map p. 498), battle of, 497-9

Japanese supremacy established, 506

Jeater, Lt-Col W. D., 60, 99n, 357

commands 2/20 Bn, 29-30

Jeffrey, Sister Betty, 683

Jeffrey, Capt R. L., 599, 600

Jehol Province (Map p. 30), 3

Jemaluang (Map p. 105; Sketch p. 251), 98-9, 100, 153-4, 168, 198, 226, 231, 241, 250-1, 252, 257, 261-2, 266, 268-9

Jementah (Sketch p. 211), 211

Jephson, Lt-Col E. W. F., 297n, 327

Jerantut (Map p. 105; Sketch p. 192), 155, 168, 192-3

Jesselton (Sketch p. 595), 595, 598

Jessup, Capt H. E., 377, 381n

Jinkins, Maj W. T., 425, 427, 429, 432, 434-5, 440, 604

Jitra (Maps pp. 54, 139; Sketch p. 148), 153, 157, 196, 198

defence line established, 140

dispositions, 146-7

action at, 147-52

Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, Dutch transport, 84

Johnson, Sgt C. H., 320

Johnson, WO1 D., 440

Johnson, Nelson T., 39

Johnston, D. S., 683

Johnston, Capt N. H., 472, 483, 485-6, 487-8

Johnston, Lt-Col N. McG., 573n, 574

Johnstone, Maj F. T., 213, 267-8, 315, 320

Johore, State of (Map p. 54), 47-8, 58, 65, 78-9, 100-1, 153-4, 182, 197, 253-4, 285, 291n, 292, 303n, 633, 636

defence plans and requirements, 93, 98, 106, 162-3, 164, 167-8, 198-9, 202-3, 206-7

appointment of Director-General of Civil Defence in, 191

withdrawal to, 207, 209

dispositions in, 210-14

operations in, 214-21, 222-49, 250-52, 260-71, 272-83

first contact between AIF and Japanese in, 225n

Johore, Sultan of

see Ibrahim, H. E. Sir

Johore, Sungei (Map p. 280), 254

Johore Bahru (Maps pp. 54, 286), 48, 64, 98, 101, 254, 259, 268, 273, 279, 281, 308, 366, 380, 529n, 531

restrictions placed on artillery targets in, 299, 300-1

lifted, 304

Johore State Forces, 106, 251, 321, 324

Johore Strait (Map p. 286), 47, 272, 281, 283, 288, 290-1, 293, 297, 300, 305, 318, 333, 341, 373, 514

patrolling of, 301, 305

Japanese cross, 316, 327, 331, 333-4, 366-7

Joint Board of Defence, 39

Jolo Island (Sketches pp 178, 595), 497, 595

Jones, Gnr A. H., 544n

Jones, Maj F. A., 213, 215-16, 217, 275-6

Jones, Cpl J. N., 403

Jgg Lye Estate (Sketch p. 267), 262

Jorak (Sketch p. 211), 222

Jukka Maru, Japanese transport, 417

Julius, Maj W. W., 222, 226-7, 233

Jurong (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 324), 303, 326

Jurong I (Map p. 344; Sketch p. 347), 345

action at, 347-8

Jurong, Sungei (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 324), 291-2, 293, 297, 301, 303, 306, 323-4, 325-6, 327, 335, 340

Jurong Road (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 324), 291, 297, 303, 306, 321, 323-4, 326-7, 335, 340, 346-8, 367, 636

–K–

K.12, Dutch submarine, 125n

Kachidoki Maru, Japanese transport, 614-15

Kahang (Sketch p. 99), 99, 241, 251

Kahang Airfield (Sketch p. 99), 99, 257, 262, 266

Kajang (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 208), 62, 207-8

Kai Island (Sketch p. 439), 439

Kainantu (Sketch p. 658), 673

Kai Tak Airfield (Map p. 171), 129

Kalai Mission (Sketch p. 654), 665, 671

Kalidjati Airfield (Sketch p. 500), 499

Kalili Harbour (Sketch p. 413), 415

Kalingi (Sketch p. 658), 657, 661n

Kallang Airport (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 374), 121n, 291, 294, 325, 361-2, 364-5, 369, 379

Kamakura Maru, Japanese transport, 613

Kamanakan (Sketch p. 654), 655

Kampar (Sketch p. 188), 181, 185

defence of, 187-8, 189

Kampar, Sungei (Map p. 188), 187

Kampong Bahru, 62

Kampong Jawa (Map p. 344), 335

Kampong Slim (Sketch p. 188), 194-5

Kanburi (Sketches pp. 542, 563), 545, 567, 581-2, 585-6, 587-9, 591

Kanchanaburi; see Kanburi

Kangar (Map p. 139), 146

Kangkar, Sungei (Map p. 286), 291

Kanjong Imam (Sketch p. 148), 147

Kanoya (Sketch p. 617), 641

Kapepa Island (Sketch p. 658), 658

Kapingamarangi Island (Map p. 30), 1n

Kapitz, Lt-Col J. R. L., 421, 424, 426-7, 428-9, 431, 434-5

Kappe, Brig C. H., 41n, 60, 85, 86n, 373, 387, 572, 573n, 581

appointed CSO 8 Div, 85

forms “Snake Gully Rifles”, 360

Karachi, 444/1

Karai-Ai (Sketch p. 658), 657

Karenko (Sketch p. 630), 629

Karumba (Sketch p. 439), 439

Katherine, 467n

Kato, Masuo, 4/.2

Katong (Map p. 286), 370

Kaut (Sketch p. 413), 413-14, 415

Kaut Harbour (Sketch p. 413), 413, 415

Kavavas River (Sketch p. 654), 661

Kavieng (Map p. 393; Sketch p. 413), 396, 398, 411

Japanese plan capture, 392

air attack on, 399, 412

Japanese invasion, 414-16

Kavieng Airfield (Sketch p. 413), 413, 414

Kawamura, Major-General, 149

Kawasaki Camp, 620-21, 625

Kawkareik (Sketch p. 542), 545

Kay, Sgt B. G., 432

Kearney, Capt P. D., 215

Keat Hong (Sketch p. 310), 315, 317, 323, 335, 339

Kedah, State of (Maps pp. 54, 139), 64, 140, 150, 164, 209

defence requirements, 93

Kedah, Sungei (Map p. 158), 150, 157

Kedah Peak (Map p. 158), 157, 159

Keegan, Maj R. W., 231-2, 233, 236-7, 242, 248, 302, 315-16, 321, 347-8

Kefannanu (Sketch p. 467), 491

Keitel, Field Marshal W., 80n

Kelantan, State of (Map p. 54), 64-5, 138, 149, 162, 166, 191

defence requirements, 93

withdrawal from, 142, 153, 155

Kelantan, Sultan of, 142

Kelena, 251n

Kendari (Map p. 393), 206, 259, 392, 416-18, 427, 474, 490, 493, 497

Kendau (Sketch p. 550), 546-7, 549

Kennedy, Capt J., 558

Kennedy, Pte N., 406

Kennedy, Sgt R. J., 597

Kent-Hughes, Colonel Sir Wilfrid, 8n, 69, 72n, 86n, 101, 279, 361, 366, 382, 520-1, 683

appointed DAQMG 8 Div, 28

appointed AA&QMG 8 Div, 373

Keppel Golf Links (Sketch p. 374), 379

Keppel Harbour (Map p. 286), 291-2, 294, 519, 520

Keravat Experimental Farm (Sketch p. 654), 654-5

Keravat River (Sketches pp. 394, 654), 396, 407-8, 653-5, 664

Keravia Bay (Sketch p. 401), 403, 412

Kerikan (Sketch p. 542), 637

Kerr, T. -Col D. R., 541

Key, Maj-Gen B. W., 138, 142, 225, 231, 241, 257, 259, 261, 264, 273, 282, 338, 340, 342-3, 354n, 512

commands 8 Indian Bde, 106n

orders withdrawal from Kota Bharu, 142

appointed GOC 11 Div, 207

orders 53 Bde to clear road to Parit Sulong, 236

endeavours to expedite attack, 240

Khlaung Ngae (Maps pp. 54, 139), 140

Kiangsi (Sketch p. 644), 16, 643-4, 645

Kido, Marquis Koichi, 56n

Kilgour, Major, 389

Kilo-4 Camp, 555

Kilo-55 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 555, 556

Kilo-60 Camp, 553

Kilo-80 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 555, 559, 560n, 561

Kilo-85 Camp, 559

Kilo-95 Camp, 555

Kilo-100 Camp, 559-60, 561

Kilo-105 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 553-4, 557n, 560-1

Kilo-108 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 553-4, 555

Kilo-116 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 556

Kilo-130 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 556

Kilo-150 Camp (Sketch p. 550), 555

Kimmel, Admiral H. E., 108

King, Fleet Admiral Ernest J., becomes Chief of US Naval Operations, 440-1

King, Maj-Gen Edward P., 507

King, Capt J. C., 130n

King, Maj-Gen R., 85

Kinkon Maru, Japanese transport, 536

Kinsayok (Sketch p. 563), 563, 571, 587

Kinta, British merchantman, 383

Kirkland, Sgt A. J., 403

Kiukiang (Sketch p. 644), 645

Kiyang (Sketch p. 644), 641

Klang (Sketch p. 208), 207

Klang, Sungei (Sketch p. 208), 207-8

Klapalima (Sketch p. 468), 468, 472

Japanese attack on, 483

Kluang (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 99), 64, 70, 98-9, 153, 203, 207, 241, 250, 254, 257, 260, 262, 269, 279n, 306

Kluang Airfield (Sketch p. 99), 99, 257, 262, 266

British air attacks on, 365

Knight, Pte P., 481

Knox, Franklin, 53, 55

Kobe (Sketch p. 617), 613-14, 619

prisoners of war at, 620-21, 622-5

Kobe House Camp, 622-5

Kodiang (Maps pp. 54, 139), 146-7, 148

Koenigplein, 533

Koepang (Sketches pp. 467, 468), 69n, 130, 271-2, 417, 419, 466-7, 468-9, 470-2, 474-5, 482, 486, 492-3, 538n

Koepang Bay (Sketch p. 468), 466, 468, 472, 482

Koh Rong (Sketch p. 88), 123

Kokopo (Sketch p. 394), 395, 401-2, 404-5, 406n, 409, 411

Kokopo Ridge Road (Sketch p. 401), 396, 401-2, 405-6

action on, 407, 408-10

Kolbano (Sketch p. 467), 475

Komet, German raider, 52

Konan (Sketch p. 617), prisoners of war at, 631-2

Kondo, Admiral N., 497

Konkoita (Sketches pp. 550, 563), 545, 564, 573-4, 576, 580, 585-7; see also Upper Konkoita

Konoye, Prince Fumimaro, 2n, 37

becomes Premier, 22

resigns, 94

Konyu (Sketch p. 563), 562, 564, 568-71, 583

Konyu 2

see Malayan Hamlet

Koolama, Australian transport, 473

Korea, 2, 113, 620, 630

annexed by Japan, 1

Japanese strength in, 114

prisoners of war in, 611-12, 631-2, 633

Korean Guards, 546-7, 549, 552-3, 558, 562, 569, 578, 592, 620

Kortenaer, Dutch destroyer, 456

Kota Bharu (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 124), 64, 87, 106-7, 124, 130, 132n, 133-4, 153

air force based on, 121n

air operations from, 122

Japanese invasion of, 125-6, 135, 137-8, 142

Kota Bharu Airfield (Sketch p. 124), 125, 137, evacuation of, 138

Kota Tampan (Map p. 158), 165

Kota Tinggi (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 99), 98, 251, 262, 266

Kowloon (Map p. 171), 170, 173, 176

Kowloon Bay (Map p. 171), 173

Kragan (Sketch p. 498), 499

Kragilan (Sketch p. 500), 499

Kra Isthmus (Map p. 42), 92, 107, 109

British proposal to occupy, 50, 109, 122-3

Kranji (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 328), 321, 330, 332

ammunition magazine at, 326, 341

Kranji, Sungei (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 291-2, 296-7, 298, 301, 303, 306, 323-4, 325-6, 327-8, 329, 330-1, 335, 340

Kranji Hospital, 530

Kranji–Jurong Line (Map p. 286), 291-2, 306, 323, 337, 366

reconnaissance of, 301-2, 303

preparations on, 324

General Percival attempts to stabilise on, 325

dispositions on, 326, 327-8, 335-6

withdrawal from, 339-40

attempted recapture of, 343, 346

Kranji Road (Sketch p. 328), 298, 329-30, 333

Krantz, Maj S., 550

Krian, Sungei (Map p. 158), 160, 162-3, 166

Kroh (Maps pp. 54, 158), 64, 133, 140, 146, 149, 151, 156, 160-1, 162

Kuala Dungun (Map p. 280), 65

Kuala Kangsar (Map p. 158), 64, 156, 160, 163, 165-6

Kuala Krai (Map p. 54), 138, 142, 153, 155

Kuala Kubu (Map p. 54; Sketches pp. 188, 208), 64, 168, 187, 191, 209

Kuala Lipis (Map p. 105), 142, 155, 168, 191

Kuala Lumpur (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 208), 48, 62, 72, 79, 96, 168-9, 193, 198, 203, 220, 248n, 279n, 306

British withdrawal from, 208-9

Kuala Lumpur Airfield (Map p. 105), 168, 193

Kuala Selangor (Sketch p. 188), 185, 193

Kuantan (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 192), 64, 106-7, 133-4, 143, 153, 168, 250, 269

defence of, 163

withdrawal from. 191-3

Kuantan, Sungei (Sketch p. 192), 191

Kuantan Airfield (Map p. 105; Sketch p. 192), 121n, 125, 142, 163, 191

defence of, 192-3

British air attack on, 221

Kuantu (Sketch p. 644), 645

Kuching (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 179), 121, 180, 595n, 596

capture of, 180-1

prisoners of war at, 595-6, 599, 633

Kudamati (Sketch p. 421), 425

defence of, 429-32

surrender of, 434

Kulai (Map p. 262), 258, 277-8, 279, 281-2

Kun Knit Kway (Sketch p. 550), 549, 551, 553

Kunming (Map p. 42; Sketch p. 644), 16, 638, 643, 645

Kupang (Map p. 158), 46

Kure, 114

Kuretake Maru, Japanese transport, 417

Kurile Islands (Map p. 112), 111

Kurusu, Saburo, 94-5, 127, 130-31, 132n

Kusunose, Colonel, 410

Kuwada, Lt-Col, 411

Kwajalein Atoll (Map p. 112), 132

American strikes on, 441

Kwangsi Province (Sketch p. 644), 16, 114

Kwantung Province (Sketch p. 644), 3n

Kweichow Province (Sketch p. 644), 16

Kweiyang (Sketch p. 644), 644

Kyle, Lt A. F., 656-7

Kyokko Maru, Japanese transport, 613

Kyushu Island (Sketch p. 617), 626, 628

–L–

Labis (Sketch p. 211), 211, 230-1, 235-6, 240

Labuan Island (Map p. 30; Sketches pp. 179, 595), 51, 595-6, 634

Lae (Sketch p. 658), 279, 396, 399, 674

Laffy, Capt J. P., 491

Laha (Sketch p. 421), 424, 432, 434, 436, 438

Laha Airfield (Sketch p. 421), 419-20, 422-3, 425, 426-7

fight for, 435-7

Lahane (Sketch p. 478), 479

Laharus (Sketch p. 467), 492

Latin (Sketch p. 654), 655-6, 660

Laidlaw, Maj G. G., 471, 479, 480-1

Laitimor Peninsula (Sketch p. 421), 420-2, 425-6, 427-8, 429, 435, 437

Lakatoi, motor schooner, 658, 661. 673

Lakekamu River (Sketch p. 658), 673

Lakunai Airfield (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 397-9, 401, 405, 411

Lalang, Sungei (Map p. 158), 159

Lamacott Mission, 413

Lamacraft, Capt A. M., 213, 217, 219-20

Lambert, Cape (Sketch p. 654), 656

Lamma Island (Map p. 171), 173

Lamon Bay (Map p. 178), 177

Lanchow (Map p: 30), 16

Landing Craft, Japanese, 116, 333-4

Lane, Lt-Col C. M., 180-1

Lang, Lt C. W. P., 504

Langinoa Plantation (Sketch p. 654), 656, 659-60

Larkin, Pte J. W., 30

Lashio (Sketch p. 644), 16, 464, 643-4

Lassul Bay (Sketch p. 654), 655-6, 660

Lateri Battery (Sketch p. 421), 429, 435

Latham, Rt Hon Sir John, 10, 23

Latourette, K. S., 4n

Latuhalat (Sketch p. 421), 421, 425, 433, 439

Lau-Lora (Sketch p. 478), 479

Launceston Grammar School, 487n

Laurabada, Australian yacht, 661, 672-3

Lavarack, Lt-Gen Sir John, 8n, 33, 256n, 445, 448, 450, 463, 464n, 496, 678

arrives Java, 442

objects to division of Corps, 443

prepares appreciation on defence of Nei, 444

opposes employment of AIF in Java, 446-7

issues instructions to Blackburn, 454

flies to Australia, 456-7, 459

Laverton Airfield, 459

Lawrence, Maj K. P. H., 314, 320

Laws, Lt D. A., 673

Lawson, Brig J. K., 172-3, 174-5

Lay, Brig W. O., 106n, 140, 146, 149, 159, 273-4

commands 8 Indian Bde, 207

Layang Layang (Map p. 262), 262, 270. 273-4

Layton, Admiral Sir Geoffrey, 93, 122-3, 125n, 141n, 144n, 145

Commander-in-Chief China Station, 40

commands Eastern Fleet, 145n

reinforcement of, 146

transfers to Batavia, 204

Leach, Capt J. C., 144

League of Nations, 22, 392

allots Pacific mandates, 1n

Japan resigns from, 3

Leave, 258n

in Malaya, 72, 96

Ledge, The (Map p. 139), 140, 146, 149

Lee, Sgt G. F., 332

Legaspi (Map p. 178), 177

Leggatt, Lt-Col Sir William, 423, 467-70, 472-3, 475, 482-7, 488-9, 490, 492, 522n, 534

Leighton Hill (Map p. 171), 175

Leles (Sketch p. 500), 532-3, 534

Lelet Plateau (Sketch p. 413), 415

Lembang (Sketch p. 500), 206

Lemingi (Sketch p. 654), 661-2, 664, 672

Lend-Lease, 55

Lenga (Sketch p. 211), 210

Lenggong (Map p. 158), 165

Lennon, Lt J. J., 319

Leong Chu, Mr, 658

Lerew, Gp Capt 3. M., 397, 399

Leuwiliang River (Sketch p. 500), 499

action at, 500-1, 504-5

Levy, WO2 P. R., 545n

Lewis, Pte J. B., 434

Lexington, American aircraft carrier, 128, 440

Liaison, between Western Area HQ and brigades, 322n

with Indian Corps at Causeway, 333

with Dutch, 418-19, 423n, 424, 429n, 501

between AHQ and Gull Force, 423n

Liang (Sketch p. 421), 420-1, 427

Liaotung Peninsula (Map p. 30), 3n

Liayuanchow; see Chen Cha Tung

Libaran Island (Sketch p. 595), 604

Libya, 52, 85, 145, 169, 184, 190, 255

Ligertwood, Hon Sir George, 375n, 385n, 650-2

Liliba (Sketch p. 468), 483

Lim Chu Kang Road (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 291, 311-12, 314-15, 319

Lind, Brig E. F., 420, 473

commands 23 Bde, 31

criticises employment of Gull and Sparrow Forces, 418-19

Ling, Sgt L. F., 504

Lingayen Gulf (Map p. 178), 177

Lingga Archipelago (Sketch p. 384), 389

Liquissa (Sketch p. 478), 480, 493

Liuyang (Sketch p. 644), 644

Liverpool, 31

Lloyd, Maj-Gen C. E. M., 206n, 443

Lloyd, Maj D. T., 185, 323

Lloyd, Lt-Col E. E., Longfield, 9-10

Lloyd, Brig J. E., 633

Lloyd, Pte S. K., 357

Lolobau, pinnace, 658

Lolobau Island (Sketch p. 658), 660

Lolotoi (Sketch p. 478), 492-3

Lomas, Maj F. J., 406, 409, 663, 667

Lombok Strait (Sketch p. 393), 456, 497, 499

London, 13, 14, 18, 26, 40-1, 48, 50-1, 52, 56, 74, 76-7, 78-9, 82-3, 91n, 92-3, 132n, 144-5, 169, 255n, 256, 284-5, 447, 449, 452, 457, 459, 462, 465, 632, 635, 649

Lonely Cross Spur, 481

Looting, 519

Lorenco Marques, 475n

Lorengau, 396

Lothian, Lord, 17-18, 25, 39

Love, Maj F. S., 84n

Lowe, Capt R. F. M., 533

Lower Nieke (Sketch p. 563), 573-4, 576

Lower Songkurai (Sketch p. 563), 574-5, 579

Lubok River (Sketch p. 595), 604

Lubuklinggau (Sketch p. 384), 540

Lumekin, Capt S. Hugh, 558, 560

Lungchow (Map p. 30), 16

Lutong (Sketch p. 179), 179

Luzon (Map p. 178), 202, 342, 593, 647, 674

defence plans, 89-90

Japanese air attacks on, 129

invasion of, 177, 390-1

Japanese reinforcement of, 507

Lye Mun Gap (Map p. 171), 174

Lye Mun Passage (Map p. 171), 173

Lyneham, Lt-Col E. D., 496, 534, 539

Lyon, Brig C. A., 157

Lyon, Lt-Col I., 388

Lyttelton, Rt Hon O., 91n

–M–

McAlister, Sgt A. J., 262

MacArthur, Gen of Army Douglas, 129, 132, 177, 179, 183, 205-6, 390-1, 445n

commands United States Army Forces in Far East, 87-8

career, 89

organises defence of Philippines, 90

considers Japan over-extended, 93-4

warned of possibility of surprise attack, 108

withdraws Luzon forces to Bataan Peninsula, 177

estimate of, 183n

ordered to Australia, 506-8

appointed Supreme Commander Allied Powers, 635

Macassar (Maps pp. 112, 393), 284, 474, 490, 633

Macaulay, Capt N. G., 522n

McBride, Maj J. H., 436, 438-9, 440

McCabe, G., 683

McCallum, Capt J. T., 655

MacCallum, Brig W. P., 454-5

McCarthy, Lt-Col J. K., 657-61, 672-3

McCauley, Air Marshal Sir John, 163n, 442, 453

McCrae, Pte V. L. J., 506

McCure, Lt R. M., 227n

McCutcheon, Lt W., 488

Macdhui, Australian transport, 672

Macdonald, Capt H. C. H., 238

MacDonald, J. Ramsay, 3

McDonald, W Cdr J. R. G., 419n

McEachern, Brig C. A., 304, 362, 525, 563n, 566-7

McEwen, Hon J., 23

McEwin, Capt O. S., 303

McFarlane, S Ldr A. B., 427n

McGregor, Capt I. A., 515

Machang (Sketch p. 124), 142, 153

airfield at, 125

Machine-Guns, 86, 305n, 402n, 419n

Japanese, 115

McInnes, Maj C. L., 401-2, 406-7, 408, 653-4, 655-6

Mack, Capt V., 517

Mackay, Lt-Gen Sir Iven, 33, 35, 97, 350n

Mackay, Lt I. J., 350, 358, 363

Mackay, T. R. B., see McKenzie, Sig D. S.

Mackenzie, Compton, 82n

McKenzie, Maj C. F. G., 471, 475, 476-8, 479, 481

McKenzie, Sig D. S., 597

MacKenzie, Lt Cdr H. A., 663, 672

MacKenzie, S. S., 392n

McLaren, Capt R. K., 597

McLaughlin, Paymaster Cdr W. E., 9n

McLean, 3., 656

McLeod, Lt-Gen Sir (D.) Kenneth, 108n

McLeod, Lt-Col N. R., 400, 664

McLeod, Lt R., 224

McLeod, Lt T. R., 487

McMillan, Capt George J., 128

McNicoll, Brig-Gen Sir Walter, 396

Macrae, Maj I. F., 424, 426, 433, 438-40, 605, 610, 638-9

MacRitchie Reservoir (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 360), 291, 325, 352-3, 358, 361

Madang (Sketch p. 658), 660, 661

Maddern, Lt-Col N. P., 485-6, 487-9, 522n

“Magic”, code name for intercepted Japanese messages, 56

Magwe (Sketch p. 461), 464

Maher, Capt M. B., 234, 242, 244

Maierhofer, Rev Father, 662, 664

Mail, 61

in captivity, 525-6, 537-8, 561, 607, 617-18, 620, 631, 645, 674n

examined by CARO for prisoner-of-war information, 679

Major, Capt J. F., 433

Majuro, 132

Makasura Camp, 537-9

Malabunga (Sketch p. 394), 398, 408, 661, 663-4

Malabunga Junction (Sketch p. 401), 407-8, 655, 664

Malacca (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 208), 62, 211, 223-4, 303n

Malacca, Colony of (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 208), 101, 167, 198-9, 203, 222

administration of, 48

defence plans, 98

role of AIF in, 106

Malacca, Strait of (Sketch p. 384). 545

Malaguna (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 399, 404

Malaguna Road 395, 674

Malahuka, motor schooner, 660

Malaria, 67n, 426, 469, 471, 528, 553, 575, 577, 590, 605, 671n, 672

Malaya (Maps pp. 30, 54), 41, 45-6, 54, 57, 63, 67-9, 71-2, 85-7, 92-3, 96, 104, 108, 114-15, 121, 123, 126-7, 129, 131, 177. 179, 180, 198, 204n, 206, 254, 284, 288, 290, 293n, 296, 345, 353, 381n, 383, 388n, 389, 419, 443, 451n, 452-3, 463, 472, 496, 507, 513, 520-1, 530, 581, 588, 593, 633, 643, 646, 676-7, 679

reinforcement of, 13-14, 49-50, 76, 81-2, 95, 103, 163-5, 182-4, 189-90, 209-10, 221-2, 258n

British policy, 52-3, 252-3

garrison needed for defence of, 18, 51, 93

strength and deficiencies, 43, 44, 77-8, 102-3

dispositions, 106

Australian reinforcement of, 19, 44n, 45, 52, 59, 60-1, 62, 83, 84, 101

proposed dispatch of 7 Aust Div to, 20, 25, 26

defence plans. 20, 24, 27, 40-1, 58, 78-9, 90, 98, 100, 107, 202-3

civil administration of, 47, 48-9, 145, 190-1, 203-4, 252, 285

British air strength in, 49-50, 77, 163

requirements, 58

distribution, 121n

losses, 141

reinforcement, 257

population, climate, etc., 64-6

publicity policy, 73-4, 84, 141

regarded as backwater by British officers, 97

lacks adequate labour force, 107

Chinese mission to, 109

Japanese plans, 110-11, 116, 125, 133-5

mobilisation ordered, 122

campaign in, 137-40, 142, 146-63, 165-9, 181, 184-90, 191-7, 199, 205, 207, 210-21, 222-49, 250-52, 256-59, 259-69, 269-71, 272-83

air reinforcement route to, 169

included in ABDA Command, 201

leadership in, 204-5

British occupation planned, 634-5

prisoner-of-war deaths in, 642

Malaya, Federated States of, 48, 62, 72, 168, 198

Malayan Communist Party, 204

Malayan Farms (Sketch p. 310), 322, 327

Malayan Government, 14, 107

–Department of Information, 74

Malayan Hamlet (Sketch p. 563), 582-3, 586

Malayan Kuomintang, 204

Malayan Police Force, 265, 293

Malay Peninsula, 27, 62-3, 91, 133, 162, 202, 253, 341, 392, 646

Malays, The, 66, 209, 281, 517, 594

relations with AIF, 62

population in Malaya, 64

attitude to escapers, 248n, 387n

behaviour under air attack, 372

on Burma–Thailand railway, 587-8

Malayu, Sungei (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 306, 327

Malay Volunteer Forces

–Federated Malay States Volunteer Force, 104, 281n

establishment of, 14

mobilisation ordered, 122

–Straits Settlements Volunteer Force, 106n, 160-1, 289, 293

calibre, 290

–Brigades

1st Malaya, 79, 106n, 290, 293, 340, 358, 361, 369, 370, 373-5

2nd Malaya, 79, 106n, 293, 361, 369

–Battalions

1 Malay, 106n, 300, 369, 370, 379

2 Malay, 335, 340

1 Perak, 185n

3 Bn SSVF 156n

Malmal Mission (Sketch p. 658), 671

Maltby, Maj-Gen C. M., 174-5, 176

commands British Tps in China and Hong Kong, 170

Maltby, Air Vice-Marshal Sir Paul, 365, 442, 502-3, 525, 534

commands British and Australian air units of ABDA Command, 341

Malum Island (Map p. 30), 1n

Manchukuo, 3, 22

Manchuria (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 617), 6, 14, 22, 55, 113, 626

Japan gains control of, 3

Japanese strength in, 114

prisoners of war in, 630-1, 633, 639-40

Mandah (Sketch p. 453), 455

Mandai (Map p. 344), 366

Mandai, Sungei (Sketch p. 328), 331-2

Mandai Kechil, Sungei (Sketch p. 328), 331-2, 333

Mandai Road (Sketch p. 328), 331, 338, 343, 354, 355-6

Mandai Road Village (Sketch p. 328), 298, 354

Mandalay (Sketch p. 461), 462

Manhattan, American transport, 183n

Manikin River (Sketch p. 468), 484

Manila (Map p. 178; Sketch p. 88), 81, 93, 116, 122-3, 127, 129, 177, 390, 634, 640-1

Japanese enter, 179

Australian reception group at, 641-2

Manila Bay (Sketch p. 88), 89-90, 177, 179, 506

Manor House (Sketch p. 374), 362

Mant, Gilbert, 63n

Manunda, Australian hospital ship, 634

Manus Island (Map p. 393), 396

Mape (Sketch p. 478), 481, 493

Marblehead, American cruiser, 90

Marco Polo Bridge, 10

Marella, Australian transport, 258n

Mariana Islands (Map p. 30), 128, 132

placed under Japanese mandate, 1

Marnix van St Aldegonde, Dutch transport, 84

Marriott, Pte H. W., 480

Marsden, Chaplain Rev, L. T., 583

Marshall, L-Cpl C., 667, 671

Marshall, Pte E. E., 505

Marshall, Gen of Army George C., 53, 94, 108, 177, 441, 506

on proposed visit of Us naval squadron to Singapore, 39

rejects ADB1 plan, 81

proposes Wavell as ABDA Command, 184, 201

and reinforcement of Australia, 450

Marshall, Capt G. C., 606

Marshall, Brig N., 35-6, 85

Marshall Islands (Maps pp. 30, 112), 111, 132

placed under Japanese mandate, 1

bombarded by American carriers, 441

Marsland, F-Lt G. H. R., 658-9, 660-1

Martaban (Sketch p. 461), 451n

loss of, 461

Martin, Brig J. E. G., 85

Martin, Sgt L. E., 431

Mary Rose, motor launch, 377, 385

Massacres, at Parit Sulong, 246-8

at Alexandra hospital, 374

on Banka Island, 386-7

at Tol, 410, 665-9

at Laha, 436

in Borneo, 603-4

Massava (Sketch p. 654), 655

Massy-Beresford, Brig T. H., 352

Massy-Greene, Hon Sir Walter, 40

Matador Operation, 92-3, 109, 121-3, 124-5, 138, 151

Matheson, Maj G., 394

Matloff, M. & Snell, E. M., 202n

Matsuda, Nobunaza, 603n

Matsui, Lt-Gen Takuro, 133n

Matsuoka, Yosuke, 55-6, 87

becomes Foreign Minister, 22

states Japanese attitude to 10-year Pact, 37-8

on Lend-lease, and American policy, 55

offers Japan’s services as mediator, 75

obtains pact of neutrality with Ussr, 79

meets Ribbentrop in Berlin, 80

replaced as Foreign Minister, 87

Matthews, Capt L. C., 356, 594, 595-7, 598-9

Matthews, Spr P. J., 530n

Matupi Harbour (Sketch p. 394), 395, 403

Matupi Island (Sketch p. 401), 396, 401, 404

Maucatar (Sketch p. 478), 493

Mauretania, British transport, 60

Mavelo Plantation (Sketch p. 654), 673

Mawhood, Lt-Col J. C., 83

Maxwell, Maj A. M., 30, 212n, 228, 513, 515, 524

Maxwell, Brig D. S. (Plate p. 15), 31, 68, 101, 106n, 210, 212n, 263, 275, 277, 296-8, 300, 304, 325, 327-8, 356, 370, 382, 613

commands 2/19 Bn, 29

estimate of, 30

commands 27 Bde, 86

reconnoitres Gemas position, 167

seeks permission for limited withdrawal from Causeway, 329

delegates responsibility for coordination, 330

problems of, 333

opens headquarters in Holland road, 338

placed under command General Key, 338-9

reports to General Key, 343

ordered to recapture Bt Panjang, 354

May, Chaplain Rev J. L., 663n

Mays, Sister D. M., 413

Maymyo (Sketch p. 461), 643

Meal, Sgt F. C., 232-3, 238

Meanjin, 515n

Medan (Sketch p. 448), 541

Medical Supplies, in captivity, 517, 518, 577n, 594, 601, 605, 609

Mediterranean Sea, 26, 51-2, 53-4, 76, 253

British naval commitments in, 19, 23-4, 56, 83

Meiklejohn, Lt J. T., 314

Metloe (Sketch p. 550), 551, 553-4, 555

Mekong River, 16

Melbourne, 31, 40, 64, 69, 84, 101, 154, 191n, 256, 374, 376n, 384, 385n, 415, 419-20, 423-4, 459, 638-9

Melville, Lt-Col W. S., 213, 217-18, 220

Menado (Map p. 393), 205, 417, 424, 426

loss of, 392. 490

Menam Kwa Not River (Sketch p. 563), 562-3, 564, 570

Menggala (Sketch p. 453), 455

Mentiplay, Lt D. V., 349n

Menzies, Rt Hon R. G., 14, 72, 82-3, 191n

explains Australian policy in Pacific, 11

proposes conference with British Prime Minister and Dominion representatives, 21

instructs Australian delegation to Eastern Group Conference, 40

visits United Kingdom, 57

cables views on British naval reinforcement of Far East, 76

returns to Australia, 81

Merak (Sketches pp. 498, 500), 499-500

Merauke (Sketch p. 439), 439-40

Mergui (Map p. 112; Sketch p. 542), 102, 108, 541-2, 544, 548-9, 590, 637

Merrett, Maj R. O., 312, 319, 322-3, 335, 345, 348

commands Merrett Force, 324

Mersing (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 251), 67n, 70, 107, 123, 133-4, 163, 180, 198, 199n, 203, 241, 254, 260, 262, 266-7

defence plans, 98-9, 100

22nd Bde at, 121

dispositions, 153-4

operations at, 250, 251-2, 269

evacuation of, 279n

prisoners of war at, 519

Mersing, Sungei (Sketch p. 251), 251

Mezali (Sketch p. 550), 553, 555

Michizawa, Lt, 619

Middle East, 13, 14, 19, 20, 23-5, 44-7, 57, 59, 60, 63, 65, 71-2, 76, 85-6, 96, 101, 104n, 145, 153-4, 163-4, 182, 205, 253, 256n, 258n, 381, 418, 447, 451n, 457-8, 460, 643

concentration of AIF in, 26-7, 59

British plans and policies, 21, 52, 81, 83

Indian Army reinforcement of, 79

Minister of State appointed, 91n

Allied strength in, 95

drawn upon to reinforce Far East, 184, 190, 371n, 443-4, 675

Midway Island (Maps pp. 30, 112), 127-8, 132, 176

Militia, 59

General Bennett’s criticisms, 33-4

strength in Australia, 258n

first militia unit to go into action in Australian territory, 398n

Miller, Lt H. D., 472

Miller, Capt W. A., 86n

Mills, Cpl C. C., 594

Milne, Lt G. A. C., 402, 404

Minami, General Jiro, 2

Mina River (Sketch p. 467), 473, 491, 492n

Mindanao Island (Map p. 178), 129, 132, 490, 507

Japanese landings, 177

Mines, 194, 251-2, 422, 436

Miri (Sketch p. 179), 179-80

Mission-204, 50-1, 643-5

Missionaries, 395

in New Britain, 405, 662, 664, 669, 670-1

in Timor, 492

Mitchell, Lt C. J., 536

Mitchell, Pte H. E., 481

Mito Maru, Japanese transport, 411

Mont, Brig R. G., 193

Mon (Sketch p. 617), 613-14, 615-16, 626-7

Moji Mara, Japanese transport, 558

Mollard, Maj J. C., 398n, 407-8, 665, 671-2

Molucca Sea (Map p. 393), 271, 392, 421

Money, Capt W. A., 661

Money-Lending, at Changi, 518-19

Mongolia( Map p. 30), 16, 55

Montevideo Maru, Japanese transport, 406n, 593, 674

Moon, Maj A. A., 564n

Moore, Lt C. Il, 356

Moorhead, Brig H. D., 140, 149, 193-4, 235

commands 6/15 Indian Bde, 166

replaced, 207

Morale

in Malaya, 152, 220, 290, 294

of III Indian Corps, 154, 199

of 2/21 Bn, 418

of US Navy, 440-1

in captivity, 511-12, 559n, 574, 581, 586, 608, 622

Morgan, L-Sgt J. A., 665

Morgan, Lt-Col M. C., 234, 248n

Morison, S. E., 127n, 441n

Moro (Sketch p. 384), 388

Morotai (Maps pp. 30, 112), 603, 639-40

Morris, Maj-Gen B. M., 674n

Morris, Sgt O., 406, 409

Morrison, Brig C. E., 189, 265

Morrison], Dr G. E., 209n

Morrison, Ian, 209n

Morrison, Capt R. H. K., 218

Morshead, Lt-Gen Sir Leslie, 206n

Mortars, at Gemas, 219-20

at Rabaul, 403

Morton, L., 116n, 177n, 390

Mosaic (Sketch p. 630), 630

Moscow, 61, 79

Moses, Lt-Col C. J. A., 86n, 274, 325, 377, 381, 383

Moten, Brig M. J., 85

Mother, The (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 399

Moulmein (Sketch p. 542), 544-5, 546-7, 550, 555n, 558

Mountbatten, Admiral of the Fleet Rt Hon Earl. 633-4, 635

Mount Vernon, American transport, 183, 450n

Moxham, L-Bdr W. D., 603-4

Moynihan, Cpl W. J., 275

Muar (Map p. 54; Sketches pp. 211, 237), 182, 198-9, 206, 222, 257-8, 290n, 296, 299, 305n

reconnaissance of, 198

defence plan, 210

battle of, 222-49

Muar, Sungei (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 211), 203, 210-11, 222, 223n, 230, 235

Japanese cross, 223-4, 224-5

Muda, Sungei (Map p. 158), 159-61

Mudie, Lt J. V. 312n

Mukden (Sketch p. 617), 3, 631, 639

Mull, Maj A., 550

Mulligan, L-Cpl C. F., 216n

Mulo School, 539

Munich, 30

Muntok (Sketch p. 384), 385-6, 540

Murai, Sungei (Map p. 286), 298-9, 302, 306, 313-14, 315-16

Murayama, Lt, 577

Murchison, Mr, 548

Murdoch, Professor James, 9

Murray, Pte A. C., 505

Murray, WO1 E. A. A., 408

Murray-Lyon, Maj-Gen D. M., 72, 106n, 147, 149, 151, 159

commands 11 Indian Div, 49

requests permission to withdraw from Jitra, 149-50

withdraws to Gurun, 157

replaced, 166

Murray River, 31

Mu Sing, Mr, 595

Muss River (Sketch p. 453), 454

Mutaguchi, Lt-Gen Renya, 133n, 317n

–N–

Nagara, Japanese cruiser, 456

Nagasaki (Sketch p. 617), 613, 628-9

prisoners of war at, 625-6

Nagasaki Bay, 625

Nagatomo, Colonel, 544, 545n, 546n, 547-9, 551-2, 555-6

Nagle, L-Sgt A. G., 215

Nagumo, Vice-Admiral C., commands Japanese Carrier Fleet, 111

Naito, Lt, 548, 550n, 552

Naka, Japanese cruiser, 416

Nakarma, 626, 641

Nakom Nayok (Sketch p. 542), 590

Nakom Paton (Sketch p. 563), 588-9

Namanula Ridge, 395, 401

Namanula Roan (Sketch p. 401), 395

Namatanai (Sketch p. 413), 396, 416, 657

Namazie Estate (Sketch p. 275), 271

action at, 275-7

Namlea (Sketch p. 439), 422, 427n

airfield at, 419n

Nana Maru, Japanese transport, 416-17

Nanchang (Sketch p. 644), 643, 645

Nanning (Map p. 112), 16, 114

Naoetsu (Sketch p. 617), 613

prisoners of war at, 619-20

Nason, Capt C. H. T., 500

Nauru Island (Map p. 30), 52, 130, 132, 394

Naval Disarmament, 1-3, 12

Nave, Paymaster Cdr T. E., 9n

Neave, Capt R. C., 491

Nee Soon (Map p. 344), 326, 330, 338, 354, 356-7, 364, 366

Negri Sembilan, State of (Map p. 54), 198

Negritos, The, in Philippines, 506

Netherlands; See Holland

Netherlands East Indies, 11, 24, 27, 57, 70, 82, 94n, 101-2, 111, 115, 121, 141n, 179, 182, 202, 294, 366, 396, 420, 424n, 444, 450n, 451n, 452-3, 466, 469, 493, 506-7, 524, 629, 676-7

and Japan, 15-16, 25, 39, 55, 93, 109

freezes Japanese assets, 87

Japanese plan attack, 110, 132

British reinforcement policy, 18, 24, 169, 190, 286

conjectural role in Pacific War, 41

defence plans and requirements, 43, 45

Australian cooperation and reinforcement of, 59, 69, 76, 122, 130, 418, 419

mobilises forces, 152

included in ABDA Command, 201-2, 646

British Air Force withdraws to, 341

planned employment of I Aust Corps in, 371, 443-5, 446-7, 675

Japanese invasion, 392, 453

prisoners of war in, 633-4

Netherlands East Indies Army; see Dutch Army

New Britain (Map p. 393; Sketch p. 658), 101, 396, 406, 410-11, 415

Japanese task force allotted, 111

evacuation of civilians, 392, 397, 673-4

prisoners of war in, 511, 593, 617-18, 621

Australian deaths, 642

evacuation of, 653-74

Newbury, Maj M. W. H., 426, 436

New Caledonia, 15, 397, 473

Newcastle, NSW, 30, 31

New Delhi, conference at, 23, 40

New Guinea (Map p. 30; Sketch p. 658), 10, 76, 111, 132, 176, 259, 279, 392, 396, 416, 419n, 420, 439, 465, 507, 606, 634, 648, 673

placed under Australian mandate, 1

extension of air force stations in, 45

administration of, 397n, 674

coastwatching service in, 398n

role of I Aust Corps in, 460

Indian prisoners of war in, 593

New Guinea Constabulary, 665n, 672

New Hebrides (Map p. 30), 15, 396-7

extension of air force stations in, 45

New Ireland (Map p. 393; Sketch p. 413), 396, 398-9, 411, 415-16, 656

Japanese naval force allotted for capture of, 111

Newnham, Capt C. F., 425, 431-3, 434n

News, at Rabaul, 397

in Changi, 515, 526, 528-30

in Java, 534, 536

on Burma–Thailand railway, 557n

at Sandakan, 594

in Manchuria, 631

of liberation, 635-41

New South Wales, 29, 64, 146n

Newton, Maj R. W. J., 232-4, 237-8, 567n, 568, 614, 625

New Zealand, 7, 21, 39, 40n, 44-5, 52-3, 56, 61, 76, 82, 201, 256, 371, 441, 446-7, 460

in conjunction with Australia occupies German islands south of equator, 1n

presses for British fleet in Far East, 6

sends brigade to Fiji, 19n

probability of Japanese invasion of, 24-5, 41, 43

defence links with America and Australia, 39

aircraft deficiencies and requirements, 44

represented at Singapore conferences, 80, 164

declares war on Japan, 130

signs Atlantic Charter, 200n

New Zealand Air Force, dependent on aircraft from Britain, 43

–No 488 Sqn, 121n

New Zealand Army, 14

–Independent Companies, 83-4, 643n

New Zealand Navy, 43-4, 45

Nibong Tebal (Map p. 158), 160

Nichi Maru, Japanese transport, 536

Nicholls, Maj H. W., 662, 664, 669-70

Niebouer, Mr, 469

Nieke (Sketches pp. 542, 563), 545, 556, 561, 563-4, 572, 574, 576-7, 580-1, 587-8

see also Lower Nieke

Nieuw Amsterdam, Dutch transport, 60

Niki-Niki (Sketch p. 467), 492n

Nimitz, Fleet Admiral Chester W., appointed Commander-in-Chief, US Pacific Fleet, 440-1

Nine-Power Treaty, 10

Nippon Times, 437n, 528

Nisbet, Brig T. G., 480

Nishimura, Lt-Gen Takumo, 224, 230, 249, 259, 261, 333

commands Guards Division, 133n

Nisi Asi-Betu, 618

Nithsdale Estate (Sketches pp. 251, 267), 100, 252

ambush in, 262, 266-9

Niyor (Map p. 262), 260, 262

Noah’s Mission (Sketch p. 401), 405, 407-8

Noakes, L-Sgt G. F., 529

Noble, Gp Capt C. H., 138

Noble, Pte J. A., 216

Noguchi, Colonel, 631

Nomura, Admiral Kichisaburo, 56, 127, 132n

appointed Japanese Ambassador to Washington, 55

negotiates with Cordell Hull, 87, 94-5, 108, 130-31

seeks to be relieved of Ambassadorship, 109n

Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 (Germany-U.S.S.R.), 87

Nona, Mt (Sketch p. 421), 425, 427, 429-31, 434

Nona Plateau, dispositions at, 425

defence of, 431-2

Non Pladuk (Sketch p. 563), 588

Noonan, Cpl A. P., 414

Noonan, W., 62n, 643n

Nordup (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 411

North Africa, 19, 54, 104n, 258n, 418

Northcote, Stafford, 92n

Northcott, Lt-Gen Sir John, 41n, 53n

visits Malaya, 69, 76n, 164

North Daughter (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 398

North Point (Map p. 171), 174

Northern Territory, 69, 101, 177, 418-19, 597

North-Western Approaches, 52

North-West Frontier, 19

“North-West Road”, 16, 21

Norway, 15, 200n

Norwich, Viscount; see Duff Cooper, Rt Hon Sir Alfred

Nottage, Capt S. G., 402n

Noumea, 397

Nurses, evacuated from Singapore, 362, 372-3

massacred at Banka Island, 386-7

at Rabaul, 397n, 406n, 612, 663n

in Sumatra, 540

in Japan, 618, 641

Nusa Island (Sketch p. 413), 412

Nusalaut Island (Sketch p. 439), 439

–O–

O.16, Dutch submarine, 125n

Oahu Island, 128

Japanese attack on, 110, 126-7

Oakes, Lt-Col R. F. (Plate p. 15), 226, 302n, 308n, 331, 333, 338, 354-5, 356-7, 581-2, 583-4, 585, 586n, 587

appointed CO 2/26 En, 304

takes command 2/26 Bn, 329-30

ordered to coordinate withdrawal from Causeway, 330

O’Brien, Maj C. B., 266-7, 268, 314. 315, 347, 348, 363

Ocean Island (Map p. 30), 127, 129, 130n, 132

Ocussi (Sketch p. 467), 466, 491n

O’Donnell, Lt-Col I. J., 85, 86n

Oeyama (Sketch p. 617), 622

Officers: Aust, 73

selected for 22 Bde, 29-30

for 27 Bde, 35-6

training for higher command, 33-4

promotion in 8 Div, 85-6

training school at Changi, 96

in captivity, 511, 512, 515n, 518n, 530, 543, 548, 559n, 562, 578-9, 584, 585-6, 587, 591-2, 599, 608, 617, 619, 620-1, 622, 629-31, 632

rates of pay, 531-2, 543n, 548n, 560, 610

deaths, 642

British, in Malaya, 96-7, 103

Indian, 104, 290n

Japanese, 113

Ogama, Cdr, 657n

Ohama (Sketch p. 617), 625n

Oil, Japanese needs, 11, 179, 371

Okada, Cpl, 570

Okada, Rokuo, 9n

Okazaki, Lt, 522

Okey, Maj D. T., 267, 313-15, 320, 363

Okinawa (Map p. 30), 640

Oldham, Capt G. C., 41n

Oldham Hall (Sketch p. 374), 362

Old Silk Road, 16

Olliff, Maj S. F., 229, 234

Olney, Pte J. N., 404

Omuta (Sketch p. 617), prisoners of war at, 628-9, 641

O’Neill, Pte F. E. G., 664, 670

Onslow (Sketch p. 200), 201

Oosthaven (Sketch p. 453), 453-4

evacuation of, 455-6

Open Bay (Sketch p. 658), 658, 660

Ophir, Mt (Map p. 54), 203

Orcades, British transport (Plate p. 495), 446, 448, 454-5, 457, 463

Orchard Road (Sketch p. 374), 370

Ord, Maj James B., 88

Orion, German raider, 52

Osaka (Sketch p. 617), 621n, 622-3

Osborn, CSM J. R., VC, 174

Oshima, General, 75, 90

Osprey, launch, 376-7

Orr, General, 87

Ottley, Lt D., 305

Outram Road Gaol, 528, 596

Owen, Lt-Col W. T., 401-4, 405-7, 411, 654, 663, 665, 671-2

–P–

P.1 Airfield (Sketch p. 453), 453-4

P.2 Airfield (Sketch p. 453), 442, 453-5

Pacific Ocean (Map p. 30), 18, 23, 26, 41, 46, 50, 52, 57, 60, 79, 82, 91, 94n, 108n, 109, 128, 285-6, 395, 440, 451n, 507, 632

allotment of mandates, 1-2

Australia’s trade interests, 5

British strategy, 7, 19

machinery for handling problems in, 93, 191n

naval strength, 145

threat of war in, 11, 14-15

role of America in, 13, 27, 39, 40, 53, 54, 55, 80

Japanese ambitions and plans, 17, 55, 56, 110

naval strength, 114

British-American cooperation in, 38

China’s proposal for solution of problems, 39

effect of Pearl Harbour, 126-7

German raiders in, 130n

unified command of forces established, 182, 183-4

Australian representation on, 256

naval reinforcement of, 253

American naval offensive begins, 441

Japanese supremacy established, 508

role of Australia, 675, 677

Pacific War Council, 256, 452

on destination of I Aust Corps, 447, 449

recommends retention of troops in Java, 459

“Pack of Cards Bridge”, 569

Pact of Steel, 37

Padang (Sketch p. 384), 384-5, 388-9

Padang Besar (Map p. 139), 140

Page, Sub-Lt C. L., 398

Page, Rt Hon Sir Earle, 286, 451n

sent to London, 92

visits Singapore, 93

visits Manila and Washington, 93-4

represents Australia on UK War Cabinet, 169, 447, 449-50, 452

recommends diversion of 7 Aust Div to Ceylon, 459-60

Page, Maj H. H., 397n, 663, 674

Pahang, State of (Map p. 54), 93

Paha River (Sketch p. 468), 482

Painter, Brig G. W. A., 106n, 192, 270, 273, 275

Palabuhan (Sketch p. 500), 505

Palau Islands (Map p. 112), 132

Palembang (Sketch p. 453), 180, 305, 385, 442, 539

Japanese attack on, 453

withdrawal from, 454-5

prisoners of war at, 539-40

Palestine, 79, 85, 163, 255n

Palliser, Admiral Sir Arthur, 123, 205, 457

Palmalmal (Sketch p. 658), 672

Palmer, Lt-Col E. C., 395, 401, 663n, 665, 667n, 671-2

Paloh (Map p. 262), 257, 260

Panama, 200n, 587

Panapal (Sketch p. 413), 412, 414

Panay, American gunboat, 10

Panchor (Sketch p. 211), 222, 224

Pandan, Sungei (Map p. 344), 340

Papua, 661

coastwatching service in, 398n

Paratroops, Japanese, 453-4, 483-4, 485, 489-90

Paris, Brig A. C. M., 156, 160-1, 165, 185, 188-9, 195, 293, 317, 323-5, 326, 335, 339-40, 345-6, 384, 388-9

commands 12 Indian Bde, 106

commands 11 Indian Div, 166

reverts to command 12 Indian Bde, 207, 225n

Parit Jawa (Sketch p. 211), 222, 224, 226-8, 231, 233

Parit Sulong (Sketches pp. 211, 237), 65, 232-3, 234-5, 242, 245, 256, 272, 296

withdrawal to, 236-40

attempted relief of, 244

massacre at, 246-8

withdrawal from, 248-9

Parker, Mt (Map p. 171), 174

Parker, Lt-Col G. E., 482-3, 491-2, 493

Parker, Capt L. I., 679

Parker, Col P. W., 240

Parkin, Lt-Col J. H. D., 260, 262, 277n

Parry, Maj J. H., 573n

Parry, Lt K. W., 218

Pascatoi. Matron Olive D., 387

Pasir Laba Battery, 293, 400n

arcs of fire, 300

bombardment of, 316

Pasir Mas (Map p. 139; Sketch p. 124), 64

Pasir Panjang (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 360), 291, 325, 337, 340, 358, 369

Pasir Panjang III, 369

Pasir Panjang Ridge, 291, 361, 369

Paso (Sketch p. 421), 422, 424-5, 427, 431, 435, 437

defence of, 428-9

Paso Isthmus (Sketch p. 421), 420, 422

Patani (Maps pp. 54, 139), 64, 133-4, 140, 151, 162

Japanese shipping losses, 125n

capture of, 135, 139

Paterson, Capt J., 619, 620-1

Pay, in captivity, 519, 531, 537, 542-3, 544n, 559n, 560, 610

Paya Lang Estate (Sketch p. 211), 210, 212

Paya Lebar (Sketch p. 374), 361, 367, 369

Peach, Lt-Col F. S. B., 264, 522n

Pearce, Dvr T. F., 220

Pearl Harbour (Maps pp. 30, 112), 39, 90n, 110, 115, 128-9, 145, 176-7, 200, 383, 419, 427, 440-1

Japanese plan surprise attack, 55, 56n

warnings of, 108

task force allotted, Ill

attack on, 126-7, 131-2

effect in United States, 135-6

Peary, American destroyer, 474, 493

Peeler, S-Sgt W., VC, 536n

Pegu (Sketch p. 461), 462, 464-5

Peirce Reservoir (Maps pp. 286, 344), 291, 325, 356, 361, 364

Peirse, Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard, 205, 279

Peking (Map p. 30), 10

Pellagra, 550

Penang Island (Maps pp. 54, 158), 64, 106, 134, 151, 190, 204, 290, 294, 372, 451n

administration of, 48

British naval strength at, 103

garrison of, 156

evacuation of, 157, 159, 160

British air attacks on, 365

Penfold, A. W., Bayliss, W. C. and Crispin, K. E., 215n, 683

Penfui (Sketch p. 468), 419n, 468, 472, 475, 483-4, 489

Penfui Airfield (Sketch p. 468), 466, 468, 473

evacuated by air force, 474-5

demolished, 482

withdrawal from, 484

Peng Siang, Sungei (Map p. 286; Sketch p. 310), 291, 326, 328-30, 339

Pensacola, American heavy cruiser, 127

Pensacola Convoy, 127, 441, 474, 497n

Perak. State of (Maps pp. 54, 158), 164., 189, 209

Perak, Sungei (Map p. 158), 64, 133, 159, 160, 162-3, 165-6, 181, 185-6, 189, 196

Perak Flotilla, 185-6

Percival, Lt-Gen A. E. (Plate p. 47), 82n, 96, 103, 106, 108n, 122, 142. 145, 157, 159, 163-4, 168, 181, 186n, 193, 198, 207, 210, 212, 246, 250, 253, 258-9, 265, 272, 279, 281. 285, 287-8, 298, 303-5, 326, 338-9, 342-3, 346, 348, 354n, 358-9, 362, 369n, 373, 375-6, 381n, 382, 512, 520, 522, 612, 650-1, 652

appointed GOC Malaya, 78-9

requests minimum of 48 battalions for defence of Malaya, 93

relations with AIF, 96-7, 98, 154

endeavours to increase labour force, 107

visits Sarawak, 121

and Operation Matador, 124

orders that battle be fought out at Jitra, 149-50

approves withdrawal from Kelantan, 153

on Japanese tactics, 155, 166-7

authorises withdrawal to Perak, 162-3

orders formation of Roseforce, 185

plans defence of Johore, 198-9, 206, 221

assessment of, 204

reinforces Muar, 225-6

places Heath in command of Muar front, 230

reinforces Bukit Pelandok, 231

orders withdrawal to Yong Peng, 236

orders Bennett to resume command of troops on Muar road, 240

reorganises, 241

organises Withdrawal to Singapore Island, 254, 257, 260-1, 271

assumes operational control of Singapore Island, 289-90

plans defence, 292-4

selects AIF tor most dangerous sector, 295

reinforces Western Area, 317, 339

organises perimeter defence of Singapore, 325, 335, 336-7, 343, 360-1, 369

orders counter-attack to regain Kranji-Jurong line, 340-1

on lack of air support, 352

ignores request for surrender, 354

seeks wider discretionary powers, 371-2

negotiates cessation of hostilities, 377, 378-80

Perlis, State of (Map p. 139), 140, 146

defence requirements, 93

withdrawal from, 147

Perring, Lt M., 185

Perry, Capt D. G., 425, 435

Persia, 31, 79, 95, 104n, 145

Persian Gulf, 371

Perth, Australian cruiser, 533, 615n, 616, 621n

in battle of Java Sea, 497-8

Pessman, Maj-Gen, 495

Philippine Air Force, strength of, 89

Philippine Army, 205, 389-91, 506

expansion and organisation of, 88-90, 177

–Divisions

11 Filipino, 90

21 Filipino, 90

31 Filipino, 90

71 Filipino, 90

Philippine Div, 90

–Regiments: Philippine Scouts, 89

Philippine Constabulary, 89

Philippine Government, 89

Philippine Islands (Map p. 42, Sketch p. 88), 23n, 38, 50, 53, 59, 75, 87, 115, 121, 127-8, 176, 182, 202, 206, 342, 437, 441, 446n, 474, 497, 595, 606, 614, 616, 628-9, 632, 634, 638, 676

United States acquisition of, 4n

defence plans, 80, 89-90

reinforcement of. 94

Japanese plans, 110-11, 116

air attacks on, 129, 132

invasion of, 177-9

included in ABDA command, 201, 646-7

campaign in, 205, 389-91

surrender of, 506-7. See also Filipinos, The

Philippine Navy, 89

Phillips, WO2 F. V., 505

Phillips, Admiral Sir Tom, 123-4, 145n

appointed C-in-C Eastern Fleet, 122

decides to attack Japanese invasion force, 141-3

death of, 144

Phosphates, 52

Phuquok Island (Sketch p. 88), 134

Pickford, Capt C., 361

Pickup, Capt A. C., 228, 242

Picone, Capt D. G., 599

Piesse, Maj E. L., 8n, 9-10

Piet Hein, Dutch destroyer, 456

Pilelo Island (Sketch p. 658), 669

Pipe-Line (Maps pp. 286, 344; Sketch p. 328), 291, 293, 330, 343, 345, 351, 355-7

Pitsanulok (Sketch p. 542), 590

Place Names, Indonesian, xiii, 419n

Plancentia Bay, 91

Playfair, G., 191n, 288n

Playfair, Maj-Gen I. S. O., 256n

Pleasant. Mt (Sketch p. 374), 373

Plenaps, 81

Poidevin, Capt L. O. S., 489n

Point 85 (Sketch p. 347), 345

Poland, 200n

Pompong, Pulau, 389

Pond, Col S. A. F., 309, 318, 319, 322-3, 326, 336, 340, 345, 351-2, 362, 573, 577-8, 579, 580-1

appointed BM 27 Bde, 36

commands 2/29 Bn, 296

on factor of tiredness in unseasoned troops, 371n

Pondai (Sketch p. 211), 212

Pondo (Sketch p. 654), 658-9, 660

Pontian, Sungei, 250

Pontian Kechil (Map p. 262), 258-9, 260-1, 265, 273

Poona, 290n

Pople, Maj F. Ii., 373

Port Arthur, 640

Port Dickson (Map p. 54; Sketch p. 208), 62, 63n, 70, 106, 303n

Port Moresby (Map p. 112; Sketch p. 658), 44, 57, 258n, 286, 406, 415-16, 657, 659, 670, 672-3. 674n

reinforcement of, 15, 59

expansion of naval station, 45

planned development, 89

Port Swettenham (Map p. 105; Sketch p. 208), 68n, 185, 193, 208, 303n

airfield at, 193

Portugal, 469, 470

protests at landing of troops in Portuguese Timor, 471, 475n

Portuguese, The, 420, 466, 481

relations with Dutch, 471

Portuguese Army, 467, 475

Port Weld (Sketch p. 188), 189

Potsdam Declaration, 635

Powell Harbour (Sketch p. 654), 658

Pownall, Lt-Gen Sir Henry, 256n

appointed C-in-C Far East, 166

assessment of, 204

becomes Wavell’s Chief of Staff, 205

Poyan, Sungei (Sketch p. 310), 315, 321

Poynton, L-Sgt J. W., 477, 479, 492n

Prabumulih (Sketch p. 453), 454

Prachuab Kirikun (Sketch p. 542), 590

Praed Point (Sketches pp. 394, 401), 395, 397, 400-1, 411

Press, The, 71-4

Priggi Rajah (Sketch p. 384), 388

Prince of Wales, British battleship, 91-2, 122, 142

arrives Singapore, 103

sinks, 143-4

Prisoners of War

Japanese attitude to, 113, 546n, 562-3

number taken at Singapore, 382, 511

duties of, 385n

interrogation of, 520-2, 535

escape prevention, 523, 528, 535, 543-4, 546-7, 550, 595, 597

pay of, 531-2, 536, 543, 548, 559n, 560, 566

forms of Japanese punishments, 528, 536-7, 552-3, 560, 563, 568-9, 591, 595, 596-7, 598-9, 600, 605, 609, 610, 618, 619, 625-6, 628-9, 630

sea transportation of, 540-1, 558, 593, 596, 611-16, 617, 642, 674

Malay Prisoner-of-War Administration, 545