The bibliography of this subject does not readily admit of the conventional distinction between primary and secondary sources. It has seemed more natural to use the categories of ‘unpublished’ and ‘published’. ‘Published’ documents are those which have been made available to the general public: some of the ‘unpublished’ documents have been published to restricted classes of readers. The list of published works omits those which, though they may have furnished incidental quotations or references, do not bear directly on this military history or its strategic background.
(a) New Zealand
The documents of 2 New Zealand Division and 2 New Zealand Expeditionary Force on which the preliminary narratives for this volume are based are in the custody of the War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington. They are too numerous to specify individually, but they fall into the following main classes:
New Zealand Corps, Divisional, Brigade and unit war diaries.
Miscellaneous reports, records of interviews, eyewitness accounts, signal messages, strength states, casualty lists, sketches, citations.
Lieutenant-General Freyberg’s diary and private papers.
These official documents have been supplemented by the unofficial material yielded by correspondence and interviews with participants undertaken both by the narrators in the War History Branch and by the author.
(b) United Kingdom
Admiralty, Naval Intelligence Division: Geographical Handbook Series, Italy, Vol. I, 1944.
British Historical Section, Central Mediterranean: Operations of British, Indian, and Dominion Forces in Italy. Part I, The Conquest of Southern Italy. Section A, Allied Strategy, Chap. II. Section B, Eighth Army Operations, Reggio to Ortona. Section E, New Zealand Corps at Cassino.
Jones, Major F. (for Historical Section of the Cabinet): Report on the Events Leading to the Bombing of the Abbey of Monte Cassino on 15 February 1944. 1949.
Narrative, section 4, Chapter H, Prelude to and Plan for the Invasion of Italy.
Leese, General Sir Oliver: An Account of 30 Corps from September to December 24th, 1943; and Eighth Army Operations up till May 11th, 1944.
Royal Air Force Mediterranean Review, No. 7, April–June 1944.
War Office Intelligence Summary of 25 March 1943.
Historical Section, Canadian Army: The Campaign in Southern Italy.
(d) United States
Historical Section, United States Army, Allied Force Headquarters: Fifth Army History. Part IV, Cassino and Anzio.
(Except for the last two items, the classifications are those of the German Military Documents Section (GMDS) files in the United States War Department, Washington, which has possession of the documents.)
Tenth Army war diary and appendices (42092/1, 4–10, 21–25).
Tenth Army reports and conversations (52071/3-8).
Fourteenth Panzer Corps war diary, intelligence diary, reports, miscellaneous appendices and maps (58199/1, 6, 8–9, 20–21, 31; 58200/1, 3, 5).
Seventy-sixth Panzer Corps appendices to war diary (43005/4).
Sixteenth Panzer Division war diary (42243/7).
Twenty-sixth Panzer Division war diary and appendices and battle reports (43873/13-14, 17–19, 26).
Von Senger und Etterlin, General F.; War Diary of the Italian Campaign – Cassino. (MS. C-095b, Historical Division, Headquarters, United States Army, Europe.) (Includes excerpts from the war diary of 14 Panzer Corps.)
Letter to author, 11 November 1954.
(i) New Zealand
(All but the first of the works in this section are published by the War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.)
Army Board: Roads to Rome. Wellington, 1946.
Borman, C. A.: Divisional Signals. 1954.
Burdon, R. M.: 24 Battalion. 1953.
Cody, J. F.: 21 Battalion. 1953.
Henderson, J. H.: RMT: Official History of the 4th and 6th Reserve Mechanical Transport Companies, Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force. 1954
McKinney, J. B.: Medical Units of the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force in Middle East and Italy. 1952.
Norton, F. D.: 26 Battalion. 1952.
Scoullar, Lieutenant-Colonel J. L.: Battle for Egypt. 1955.
Sinclair, D. W.: 19 Battalion and Armoured Regiment. 1954.
Llewellyn, Peter: Journey Towards Christmas: Official History of the 1st Ammunition Company, Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force, 1939–45. 1949.
War History Branch: Documents Relating to New Zealand’s Participation in the Second World War, 1939–45. Vols. I and II. 1949 and 1951.
(ii) United Kingdom
Alexander, Field-Marshal Viscount: Despatch on The Allied Armies in Italy from 3rd September, 1943, to 12th December, 1944. Supplement to The London Gazette, 6 June 1950.
Ehrman, John: Grand Strategy, Vol. V, August 1943–September 1944. HMSO, London, 1956.
Linklater, Eric: The Campaign in Italy. (Volume in The Second World War, 1939–45: A Popular Military History.) HM Stationery Office, London, 1951.
Montgomery, Field-Marshal Viscount: El Alamein to the River Sangro.
British Army of the Rhine, Germany, 1946. Normandy to the Baltic.
British Army of the Rhine, Germany, 1946.
Richards, Denis, and Saunders, Hilary St. George: Royal Air Force, 1939–45. Vol. II, The Fight Avails. HMSO, London, 1954.
Wilson, Field-Marshal Lord: Report by the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Italian Campaign. Part I: 8th January 1944 to 10th May 1944. HMSO, London, 1946.
(iii) United States
Craven, Wesley Frank, and Cate, James Lea (ed.): The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. III, Europe: Argument to V-E Day, January 1944 to May 1945. University of Chicago Press, 1951.
War Department, Military Intelligence Division: Salerno.1944. Volturno. 1944. The Winter Line. 1945.
The Tiger Triumphs. HMSO, London, 1946.
Badoglio, Marshal Pietro (translated by Muriel Currey): Italy in the Second World War: Memories and Documents. Oxford University Press, London, 1948.
Bourke-White, Margaret: ‘Purple-Heart Valley’: A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1944.
Buckley, Christopher: Road to Rome. Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1945.
Butcher, Captain Harry C., USNR: My Three Years With Eisenhower. Heinemann, London, 1946.
Churchill, Winston S.: The Second World War. Vol III, The Grand Alliance, Cassell, London, 1950. Vol. IV, The Hinge of Fate, London. 1951. Vol. V, Closing the Ring, London, 1952.
Ciano, Count Galeazzo (ed. Malcolm Muggeridge): Ciano’s Diary, 1939–1943. Heinemann, London, 1947.
Clark, General Mark W.: Calculated Risk. Harper, New York, 1950.
De Belot, Rear-Admiral Raymond (translated by James A. Field, jun.): The Struggle for the Mediterranean, 1939–45. Princeton University Press, 1951.
De Guingand, Major-General Sir Francis: Operation Victory. Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1947.
Eisenhower, General Dwight D.: Crusade in Europe. Heinemann, London, 1948.
Gottman, Jean: A Geography of Europe. Harrap, London, 1950.
Hart, Captain B. H. Liddell: The Other Side of the Hill. Cassell, London, 1951.
Hinsley, F. H.: Hitler’s Strategy. Cambridge University Press, London, 1951.
Hull, Cordell: The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. Two volumes. Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1948.
Kesselring, Field-Marshal A.: The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Kesselring. Kimber, London, 1953.
Kippenberger, Major-General Sir Howard: Infantry Brigadier. Oxford University Press, London, 1949.
Majdalany, F.: The Monastery. Lane, Bodley Head, London, 1945.
Martin, Colonel T. A.: The Essex Regiment, 1929–50. Essex Regt. Assn., Brentwood, 1952.
Newbigin, Marion I.: Southern Europe: A Regional and Economic Geography of the Mediterranean Lands. Third edition. Methuen, London, 1949.
Richmond, Admiral Sir Herbert: Statesmen and Sea Power. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1946.
Schuler, Captain Ernst: ‘Die Angriffsschlachten gegen Cassino’ in Allgemeine Schweizerische Militär Zeitschrift, May 1951.
Sherwood, Robert E.: The White House Papers of Harry L. Hopkins. Vol. II. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1949.
Siegfried, André (translated by Doris Hemming): The Mediterranean, Cape, London, 1948.
Stevens, Lieutenant-Colonel G. R.: Fourth Indian Division. McLaren, Toronto (no date of publication).
The Times, London: Issues of 24, 25, 26 October 1950; 8, 14 November, 28 December 1951; 10 January 1952.
Von Senger und Etterlin, General F.: ‘Monte Cassino’ in The New English Review, Vol. II (N.S.) No. 4, April 1949. ‘Die Cassino-Schlachten’ in Allgemeine Schweizerische Militär Zeitschrift, June 1951.
Wessel, Wilhelm: Umkämpftes Römisches Land. German Propaganda Company, Italy, 1944.
Westphal, General Siegfried: The German Army in the West. Cassell, London, 1951.
Wilmot, Chester: The Struggle for Europe. Collins, London, 1952.
Wintringham, Tom: Weapons and Tactics. Faber, London, 1943.
Wilson, Field-Marshal Lord: Eight Years Overseas, 1939–1947. Hutchinson, London, 1950.
Wiskemann, Elizabeth: The Rome–Berlin Axis: A History of the Relations between Hitler and Mussolini. Oxford University Press, London, 1949.