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New Zealand

‘Cassino–Sora–Avezzano.’ War History Branch narrative by R. Walker.

‘From the Arce Rest Area to Monte Lignano’, by A. G. Protheroe.

‘Florence’, by R. Walker.

‘The Italian Campaign, August – November 1944’, by A. G. Protheroe.

‘The Italian Campaign, November 1944–May 1945’, by R. L. Kay.

‘The End of the War and Disbandment of 2 NZEF’, by R. L. Kay.

These preliminary narratives are based on the divisional, brigade, and unit war diaries of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force, supplemented by miscellaneous reports, records of interviews, eyewitness accounts, signal messages, strength states, sketches, citations, and unofficial material yielded by correspondence and interviews with participants.

GOC’s Papers: a diary kept by Lieutenant-General Freyberg(or for him by his Personal Assistant), supplemented by relevant papers and reports grouped in files.

File 46. GOC’s Diary, Part IV, 3 September 1943–17 October 1944.

File 52, Cassino, Terelle and Atina.

File 53, Sora–Rome–Arezzo.

File 54, Florence advance – Across to the Adriatic.

File 55, Attack on the Gothic Line.

File 56, Rimini-Pisciatello, and out of the line. Major-General Weir’s diary, 5 September to 13 October 1944.

File 57, At Matelica.

File 58, Faenza operations.

File 59, Static period on Senio River line.

File 60, Static on Senio – Exercise ‘Ubique’. Visit of General Mark Clark.

File 61, Relief of 2 New Zealand Division by 5 Kresowa (Polish) Division and withdrawal to Matelicaarea. Planning and training for coming offensive. Move forward to line again.

File 62, Orders for Operation Buckland. Crossings of the Senio, Santerno, Sillaro, Gaiana, Idice, Reno, Po and Adige – capture of Padua and Venice – crossing the Piave.

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File 63, Crossing of Isonzo and first contact with troops of Marshal Tito. Advance to Trieste. Surrender of German Armies in Italy. Defensive measures in Trieste. Visit of General Mark Clark. Visit of General McCreery.

File 64, Visit of Field Marshal Alexander. Yugoslav troubles at Trieste. Conference, future policy on war in Far East.

File 65, Farewell message to 2 New Zealand Division from Eighth Army Commander. Final days in Trieste-move to Trasimene – farewell articles in Trieste newspapers.

File 66, Conference on force for Japan. Move to Florence.

File 67, GOC’s Diary, Part V, 18 October 1944–January 1945.

File 68, GOC’s Diary, Part VI, 1 January- 17 October 1945.

File 69, Cables to Prime Minister on policy matters, appreciations, etc., 3 October 1942 to 15 August 1945.

File 70, Furlough Scheme – Ruapehu, Wakatipu and reinforcements.

File 71, Furlough Scheme – Taupo. Release of 4th Reinforcements.

File 72, Replacement Scheme – Tongariro. Use of 3 Division as replacements.

File 73, Replacement Scheme – HAWEA, WAIKATO, TEKAPO, APARIMA. Release of 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th Reinforcements.

File 75, Employment of Division. Effect of future policy on replacement of long-service personnel.

File 76, 3 Greek Mountain Brigade under command of 2 New Zealand Division.

File 77, Short-term and long-term reorganisation for operations inItaly.

File 78, Future employment and problems of changeover: GOC’s early appreciations for New Zealand Government on role in Far East war.

File 79, Further appreciations by GOC on role in Far East. GOC’s visit to London. Coronet project. VJ Day alters situation. Shipping troubles and schemes for repatriation of long-service personnel.

File 80, Occupation force for Far East(file labelled ‘Jayforce’).

File 81, Difficulties in obtaining shipping for repatriation of remainder of NZEF to New Zealand.

File 82, Disposal of equipment.

File 83, Leave scheme to United Kingdom.

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File 84, Handover of command of 2 NZEF. Report on various funds under control of GOC.

File 85, Memorial services –Crete, Sangro, Cassino and Alamein.

United Kingdom

Admiralty, Naval Intelligence Division: Geographical Handbook Series Italy, Vol. I, 1944.

British Historical Section, Central Mediterranean: Operations of British, Indian, and Dominion Forces in Italy, Part II: The Campaign in Central Italy. Section A, Allied Strategy. Section B, Eighth Army Advance to Rome. Section D, Eighth Army Advance to Florence. Section E, 5 Corps on the Adriatic Coast. Section F, German Strategy. Part III: The Campaign in the Northern Apennines. Section A, Allied Strategy. Section B, Eighth Army– The Gothic Line and Romagna Battles. Section E, 1 Canadian Corps Operations. Section H, German Strategy. Part IV: The Campaign in Lombardy. Section B, Eighth Army – The Final Offensive. Section C, 5 Corps Operations. Section D, 13 Corps Operations. Section E, 10 Corps Operations. Section F, 2 Polish Corps Operations. Section G, German Strategy.

Leese, General Sir Oliver: Eighth Army Operations: Battles for the Gustav Line and for the Adolf Hitler Line, May 11th to May 30th 1944. From the Capture of Rome to the Entry into Florence, 31st May to 11th August 1944. From Start of Preparations for the Battle for the Gothic Line on the Adriatic, 12th August, to Breakout from Rimini into Po Valley, 21st September 1944.

United States

Historical Section, United States Army, Allied Force Headquarters: Fifth Army History: Part IV, Cassino and Anzio. Part V, The Drive to Rome. Part VI, Pursuit to the Arno.


Many of the enemy documents captured during the progress of the war were translated and appended to the relevant war diaries. After the war the bulk of the material captured in Germany – generally speaking, documentation at divisional level and above – was transferred to the United States War Department, Washington. Mr W. D. Dawson was sent to Washington by the War History Branch to appraise this material and translate whatever had reference to the War History Branch programme. He also traced copies of maps and diagrams. Unfortunately the enemy documents, except for one or two brief reports, peter out in October 1944. No records of 76 Panzer Corps during the period it controlled divisions opposing the New Zealand Division were available.

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Documents from which extracts were translated:

Tenth Army war diary and appendices.

Tenth Army reports and conversations.

Fourteenth Army war diary and appendices.

Fourteenth Army reports.

51 Mountain Corps war diary and appendices.

14 Panzer Corps reports.

29 Panzer Grenadier Division report, 16–20 December 1944.

C-in-C South-West daily reports to General Headquarters, Berlin, December 1944.

Biographies of German Army officers prominent in the Italian Campaign, 1943–45.

The following report, also based on German military documents in Washington, was consulted:

Historical Section, Canadian Army: The Italian Campaign (11 Aug–31 Oct 44). Information from German military documents regarding Allied operations in general and Canadian operations in particular.



New Zealand

(All but the first two of the works in this section are published by the War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.)

Army Board, Roads to Rome. Wellington, 1946.

Army Board, One More River. Wellington, 1946.

Bates, P. W., Supply Company, 1955.

Borman, C. A., Divisional Signals, 1954.

Burdon, R. M., 24 Battalion, 1953.

Cody, J. F., 21 Battalion, 1953; Maori Battalion, 1956; New Zealand Engineers, Middle East, 1961.

Davin, D. M., Crete, 1953.

Dawson, W. D. 18 Battalion and Armoured Regiment, 1961.

Gillespie, O. A., The Pacific, 1952.

Henderson, J. H., 22 Battalion, 1958; RMT, 1954.

Kay, R. L., 27 (Machine Gun) Battalion, 1958.

Kidson, A. L., Petrol Company, 1961.

Llewellyn, P., Journey Towards Christmas (history of 1 Ammunition Company), 1949.

Loughnan, R. J. M., Divisional Cavalry, 1963.

Murphy, W. E., 2nd New Zealand Divisional Artillery, 1967.

Norton, F. D., 26 Battalion, 1952.

Phillips, N. C., Italy, Vol. I: The Sangro to Cassino, 1957.

Pringle, D. J. C., and Glue, W. A., 20 Battalion and Armoured Regiment, 1957.

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Puttick, Lieutenant-General Sir E., 25 Battalion, 1960.

Ross, A., 23 Battalion, 1959.

Sinclair, D. W., 19 Battalion and Armoured Regiment, 1954.

Stevens, Major-General W. G., Problems of 2 NZEF, 1958.

War History Branch: Documents Relating to New Zealand’s Participation in the Second World War, 1939–45, Vol. I, 1949; Vol. II, 1951; Vol. Ill, 1963.

United Kingdom

Alexander, Field Marshal Viscount, Despatch on The Allied Armies in Italy from 3rd September 1943 to 12th December 1944. Supplement to The London Gazette, 6 June 1950.

Alexander, Field Marshal Viscount, Report by the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Italian Campaign, 12th December 1944 to 2nd May 1945. HM Stationery Office, London, 1951.

Ehrman, John, Grand Strategy, Vol. V, August 1943 – September 1944; Vol VI, October 1944–August 1945. HMSO, London, 1956.

Harris, C. R. S., Allied Military Administration of Italy, 1943–1945. HMSO, London, 1957.

Joslen, Lieutenant-Colonel H. F., Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations in the Second World War, 1939–1945. HMSO, London, 1957.

Linklater, Eric, The Campaign in Italy. (Volume in The Second World War, 1939–45: A Popular Military History). HMSO, London, 1951.

(Volume in The Second World War, 1939–45: A Popular Military History).HMSO, London, 1951.

Wilson, Field Marshal Lord, Report by the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Italian Campaign. Part II: 10th May 1944 to 12th August 1944; Part III: 13th August 1944 to 12th December 1944. HMSO, London, 1948.

United States

Coles, Harry L., and Weinberg, Albert K., Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors. United States Army in World War II, Special Studies. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, 1964.

Command Decisions (ed. Roberts Greenfield Kent): Martin Blumenson, ‘General Lucas at Anzio’. Richn-son, ‘General Lucas at Anzio’. Richard M. Leighton, ‘Overlord versus the Mediterranean at the Cairo-Tehran Conferences’. Sidney T. Mathews, ‘General Clark’s Decision to Drive on Rome’. Maurice Matloff, The Anvil Decision: Crossroads of Strategy’. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, 1960.

Finito! The Po Valley Campaign, 1945. Headquarters, 15th Army Group, Italy, 1945.

Pogue, Forrest C., The Supreme Command. United States Army in World War 11, The European Theatre. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, 1954.

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Williams, Mary H., Chronology, 1941–45. United States Army in World War II, Special Studies. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, 1960.


Nicholson, Lieutenant-Colonel G. W. L., Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Vol. II, The Canadians in Italy, 1943–45. Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1956.


Pal, Dharm, Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War, 1939–45, The Campaign in Italy, 1943–45. Combined Inter-Services Historical Section (Indian and Pakistan),New Delhi, 1960.


Alexander, Field Marshal Viscount, The Alexander Memoirs. Cassell, London, 1962.

Cox, Geoffrey, The Road to Trieste. Heinemann, London, 1947.

Bohmler, Colonel Rudolf (translated by Lieutenant-Colonel R. H. Stevens), Monte Cassino: A German View. Cassell, London, 1964.

Churchill, Sir Winston S., The Second World War, Vol. V, Closing the Ring. Cassell, London, 1952. Vol. VI, Triumph and Tragedy, 1954.

Clark, General Mark W., Calculated Risk. Harper, New York, 1950.

Eisenhower, General Dwight D., Crusade in Europe. Heinemann, London, 1948.

Fuller, Major-General J. F., The Second World War. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1954.

Hillson, Norman, Alexander of Tunis: A Biographical Portrait. Allen, London, 1952.

Kesselring, Field Marshal A., The Memoirs of Field Marshal Kessetring. Kimber, London, 1953.

Palmer, G. Blake, Italian Journey. Oswald-Sealy, Auckland, 1945.

Stevens, Major-General W. G., Freyberg, V.C.: The Man. Reed, Wellington, 1965.

Von Senger und Etterlin, General F.(translated by George Malcolm), Neither Fear Nor Hope. Macdonald, London, 1963. (First published in the German language in 1960 under the title of Krieg in Europa by Keipenheuer and Witsch of Cologne and Berlin.)

Wilson, Field Marshal Lord, Eight Years Overseas, 1939–1947. Hutchinson, London, 1950.