Illustrations

Frontispiece

Frontispiece. The three Commanders-in-Chief: Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Longmore, General Sir Archibald Wavell.

Photo 1

Photo 1. Entrance to workshops and explosive stores in the Tura caves. The Nile is in the distance.

Photo 2

Photo 2. Observation Hill, at the southern end of the Tug Agran Gap, British Somaliland. View looking almost due east.

Photo 3

Photo 3. Takoradi: landing a Hurricane fighter brought by HMS Argus.

Photo 4

Photo 4. HMS Illustrious parts company with the 3rd Cruiser Squadron before the attack on Taranto. (From the painting by Rowland Langmaid.)

Photo 5

Photo 5. A British 60-pdr gun in action under its camouflage net. Taken from below the escarpment, September 1940.

Photo 6

Photo 6. A patrol of Gladiators returning to its desert base.

Photo 7

Photo 7. ‘There is no spot more naked’: four-barrelled .5 machine-gun in action. (From the painting by Rowland Langmaid.)

Photo 8

Photo 8. An operation in a hospital tent in the desert.

Photo 9

Photo 9. A Hurricane flying over the coastal strip of the Western Desert. The sea is on the left; then a belt of sand and scrub; clear of this is the thin ribbon of the main road to Matruh.

Photo 10

Photo 10. Dust! The effect of a flight of Hurricanes taxi-ing across the landing ground.

Photo 11

Photo 11. Dust! A Hurricane about to take off from its ‘base’. The operations room is in the tent.

Photo 12

Photo 12. The desert is not always dry. Airmen literally bailing out after a sudden rainstorm.

Photo 13

Photo 13. A burnt-out British tank which had become bogged in a salt marsh near Buq Buq in December 1940.

Photo 14

Photo 14. View looking down on Sollum, showing the primitive harbour. In the background is the escarpment.

Photo 15

Photo 15. British Matilda ‘I’ tank being towed up to Halfaya Pass. Sollum Bay is in the back-ground: Sollum barracks are above the escarpment; Sollum itself to the left of the bay.

Photo 16

Photo 16. The river gunboat Aphis in Sollum harbour, where she helped the Army by landing water. December 1940.

Photo 17

Photo 17. View of Bardia harbour showing the damage done by HMS Aphis on 17th December 1940.

Photo 18

Photo 18. View of Bardia and its small harbour. The two abandoned tanks are Italian.

Photo 19

Photo 19. Tobruk and its harbour from the west.

Photo 20

Photo 20. The Italian cruiser San Giorgio on fire in Tobruk harbour.

Photo 21

Photo 21. Damage to the wharves at Tobruk.

Photo 22

Photo 22. A Patrol of the Long Range Desert Group.

Photo 23

Photo 23. What the air sees in the desert. Taken from just outside the perimeter of the Bardia defences.

Photo 24

Photo 24. The cruisers Berwick, Newcastle and Southampton in action off the coast of Sardinia, 27th November 1940.

Photo 25

Photo 25. Bombs dropping all round HMS Ark Royal during the action off Cape Spartivento, 27th November 1940.

Photo 26

Photo 26. Walrus amphibian aircraft about to be catapulted. This was one of the spotting aircraft used at the bombardment of Genoa.

Photo 27

Photo 27. Destruction at the Italian seaplane base at Bomba.

Photo 28

Photo 28. Vertical air photograph of Benghazi harbour, showing a large ship on fire, another on fire and sinking, a sunken destroyer, another ship partly submerged, and several other ships damaged. Leaking oil clearly visible on the surface of the water.

Photo 29

Photo 29. The South Africans’ pontoon bridge over the river Juba at Yonte, 19th February 1941.

Photo 30

Photo 30. Unloading stores at Kismayu, 19th February 1941.

Photo 31

Photo 31. Bridge built over the river Awash to replace the bridge destroyed by the Italians.

Photo 32

Photo 32. An aircraft dropping a message for the troops just before the entry into Addis Ababa.

Photo 33

Photo 33. The Emperor Haile Selassie arrives by air at the frontier of Ethiopia. The officer holding the paper is Colonel Wingate.

Photo 34

Photo 34. Mount Belaya, the Emperor’s first headquarters on returning to his country.

Photo 35

Photo 35. The camel train taking stores and ammunition to Gojjam, February 1941.

Photo 36

Photo 36. ‘A way up the Ethiopian escarpment has been found.’

Photo 37

Photo 37. Ras Hailu’s army comes to surrender to the Emperor at Debra Markos, April 1941.

Photo 38

Photo 38. The bombing of the Caproni workshops at Mai Edega, near Gura, by the RAF on 16th February 1941, showing hits on hangars and buildings.

Photo 39

Photo 39. Panorama of the Italian position in from of Keren, looking north-east from the main road just before it bends to enter Dongolaas Gorge. The scar on the hillside below Sanchil and Cameron Ridge is the railway. On the right of the gorge the road is seen climbing the lower slopes of Pinnacle.

Photo 40

Photo 40. A Wellesley of the RAF on its way to Keren.

Photo 41

Photo 41. Battle of Keren: site of the road-block in the Dongolaas Gorge. One of the first armoured cars to pass through.

Photo 42

Photo 42. Middle Hill, Little Alagi, and Amba Alagi from the southern slopes of Elephant.

Photo 43

Photo 43. Amba Alagi: view looking north from near the Dessie Road. On the left Amba Alagi; farther to the right, Triangle.