The Army Air Forces in World War II: Volume 5

The Pacific: MATTERHORN to Nagasaki

June 1944 to August 1945

Prepared under the editorship of

Wesley Frank Craven, Princeton University,

James Lea Cate, University of Chicago.

By Air Historical Group United States Air Force

Wilfred J. Paul, Col, USAF, Director

Albert F. Simpson, Air Force Historian

Table of Contents


Section 1: The Twentieth Air Force and MATTERHORN

James Lea Cate, University of Chicago

Chapter 1: The VLR Project

Chapter 2: The Twentieth Air Force

Chapter 3: Matterhorn Logistics

Chapter 4: XX Bomber Command against Japan

Chapter 5: Exit Matterhorn

Section 2: Aid to China: The Theater Air Forces in CBI

Woodford A. Heflin, Air University

Lee Bowen, USAF Historical Division

Chapter 6: Ways and Means

Woodford F. Heflin

Chapter 7: Delay in Burma, Disaster in China

Lee Bowen

Chapter 8: The Liberation of Burma

Lee Bowen

Chapter 9: Victory in China

Lee Bowen

Section 3: Return to the Philippines

Frank Futrell, USAF Historical Division

Maj. Bernhardt L. Mortensen, USAF

Chapter 10: Prelude to Invasion

Frank Futrell

Chapter 11: Men and Weapons

Frank Futrell

Chapter 12: Leyte

Frank Futrell

Chapter 13: Mindoro

Frank Futrell

Chapter 14: Luzon

Frank Futrell

Chapter 15: The Clean-Up

Maj. Bernhardt L. Mortensen

Chapter 16: Cutting the Enemy’s Lifeline

Maj. Bernhardt L. Mortensen

Section 4: Strategic Bombardment from Pacific Bases

James Taylor, Southwest Texas State Teachers College

James Lea Cate, University of Chicago

James C. Olson, Nebraska State Historical Society

Frank Futrell, USAF Historical Division

Wesley Frank Craven, Princeton University

Chapter 17: Preparation for Combat

James Taylor

Chapter 18: Precision Bombardment Campaign

James Lea Cate

James C. Olson

Chapter 19: Iwo Jima

James Lea Cate

James C. Olson

Chapter 20: Urban Area Attacks

James Lea Cate

James C. Olson

Chapter 21: The All-Out B-29 Attack

James Lea Cate

James C. Olson

Chapter 22: Reorganization for Victory

Frank Futrell

James Taylor

Chapter 23: Victory

James Lea Cate

Wesley Frank Craven


List of Maps and Charts

B-29 Target Cities in Japan – Potential B-29 bases with radius of action of 1,600 nautical miles – Kharagpur area airfields – Chengtu area airfields – Ceylon airfields – Hump routes of XX bomber command – Primary targets of B-29’s from China bases – Primary targets of B-29’s from India bases – Location of service units in the India–Burma Air Service Command and China Air Service Command – Southeast Asia – China – The Burma Campaign – The Philippines – Palau Islands – Morotai – Leyte- Samar, P.I. – Landing area – combat zones (Leyte) – San Jose area (Mindoro) – Landing area, Lingayen Gulf, Luzon – Luzon, Philippine Islands – Corregidor – Air Force Bases, Luzon–Mindoro – AAFSWPA areas of responsibility, 1 April 1945 – Southern Philippines – Southern Philippine Is., Borneo, and Halmahera Celebes – Formosa – Allied Air Forces SWPA search sectors, April 1945 – Organization of US AAFPOA and deputy commander – Twentieth Air Force – Twentieth Air Force bases in the Marianas – Command relations in Pacific Ocean areas

List of Illustrations

Building the Chengtu airfields – MATTERHORN Operations – Before the Yawata mission – Attack on Mingaladon cantonment area, Rangoon – C-46’s on the Assam–China route – The first ridge on the Hump route – Loading gasoline drums – The Ledo road – Bomb damage at Myitkyina – Air supply in Burma – Rail bridge in Burma destroyed by the 7th Bombardment Group – Operation GRUBWORM, December 1944 – Fourteenth air force bases – Runway at Liuchow – Abandoning Hengyang – Battle for Leyte Gulf – FEAF planes sink Abukuma – But miss Yamato – Ormoc bay – FEAF planes sink destroyer – Attack on a transport – Bombing Corregidor – Return to Clark Field – Close Support in Luzon – Air Liaison Officer in l-5 marking target – P-38 bombing ahead of ground troops – P-38’s dropping napalm bombs near Ipo dam – Balikpapan – Attack by Thirteenth Air Force B-24’s – Damage to cracking plant – B-25’s of the 345th Bombardment Group sink frigate near Amoy, 6 April 1945 – Marianas air bases – Harmon field, Guam – Isley field, Saipan – B-29 maintenance – R-3350 engines at Guam – Night work during the March fire blitz – Japanese attack on Isley field, 27 November 1944 – Japanese weather – Japanese defenses – Fighter making a pass under B-29 – Direct hit on B-29 by flak – P-51’s on Iwo Jima – Tokyo: burnt-out areas – Nakajima- Musashino – Incendiary attack on Osaka – Osaka: area burnt-out – M26 mine dropped by b-29 – Okinawa: airfield Motobu – Last day: attack on Marifu rail yards, 14 August 1945 – The Atom Bomb Directive – Hiroshima: last-minute instructions – Letter from president Truman 12 January 1953 – Nagasaki: the atomic cloud – Nagasaki: photo post-strike – Hiroshima: Before attack – Nagasaki: steel works and Mitsubishi arms

United States Air Force Historical Advisory Committee

(as of May 1, 1983)

Lt. Gen. Charles G. Cleveland, , USAF Commander, , Air University, ATC

Maj. Gen. Robert E. Kelley, USAF , Superintendent, USAF Academy

Mr. DeWitt S. Copp , The National Volunteer Agency

Dr. Joan Kennedy Kinnaird , Trinity College

Dr. Warren W. Hassler, Jr. , Pennsylvania State University

Mr. David E. Place, , The General Counsel, USAF

Dr. Edward L. Homze , University of Nebraska

Gen. Bryce Poe II, , USAF, Retired

Dr. Alfred F. Hurley Brig. Gen., USAF, , Retired North Texas State University

Dr. David A. Shannon (Chairman) , University of Virginia