United States Army in World War II: Mediterranean Theater of Operations

Sicily and the Surrender of Italy

by Albert N. Garland and Howard McGaw Smyth, assisted by Martin Blumenson

... to Those Who Served

Table of Contents


The Authors


Part 1: Background and Plans

Chapter 1: Allied Strategy in the Mediterranean

Casablanca: The Decision for Sicily—TRIDENT: Beyond Sicily—Algiers—And Italy?—The Surrender Problem

Chapter 2: The Axis on the Defensive

The Italo-German Alliance—The Disintegration of Fascism—The Allied Threat

Chapter 3: Preparations and Preliminaries

The Beginnings—The Plan—Other Factors

Chapter 4: The Axis Situation

Pantelleria—Growing German Strength—The Defenses of Sicily

Chapter 5: Final Allied Preparations

Missions and Forces—Seventh Army Plans—Naval and Air Plans—The Final Days

Part 2: Operations and Negotiations

Chapter 6: The Assault

The Airborne Operations—The Seaborne Operations

Chapter 7: The First Day

The Axis Reaction—The Battle—The Beaches

Chapter 8: The Axis Threat

Chapter 9: Airborne Reinforcement

Chapter 10: The Beachhead Secure

Straightening Out the Sag—On to the YELLOW Line

Chapter 11: Continuing the Campaign: The Decisions

Sixth Army and OB SUED—The Allied Problem: How to Continue—Comando Supremo and OKW

Chapter 12: Seventh Army Changes Directions

The Eighth Army Attempt To Break Through—The II Corps Front—Agrigento—Army Directive of 15 July 1943—Discord and Harmony

Chapter 13: The Drive to the Climax

The Feltre Conference—Planning the Western Sweep—The Pounce on Palermo—Denouement

Chapter 14: The Climax

Sardinia Versus the Mainland—The Overthrow of Mussolini—Allied Reaction—Rome: Open City

Chapter 15: Dissolution of the Rome-Berlin Axis

Badoglio’s First Moves—Friction Along the Alps—The Italian Course is Changed

Chapter 16: The Drive to the East

Developing an East Front—Axis Reactions—Nicosia—Along the North Coast

Chapter 17: The Battle of Troina

Chapter 18: Breaking the San Fratello Line

Chapter 19: Evacuation

The Tarvis Conference—The Italian Dilemma—The Decision to Evacuate Sicily—Allied Reaction—The Evacuation Begins

Chapter 20: Brolo

Chapter 21: The End of the Campaign

The Race to Messina—Conclusions—Patton

Part 3: The Surrender

Chapter 22: The QUADRANT Conference and the Quebec Memorandum

Strategic Issues at Quebec—The Mission of General Castellano—The Quebec Memorandum—Approval of the Long Terms

Chapter 23: The Surrender Preliminaries

The Zanussi Mission—Castellano at Lisbon—Zanussi’s Negotiations in Lisbon and Algiers—Thoughts in Rome

Chapter 24: The Italian Decision

ACHSE—The Parleys at Cassibile—The Decision at Rome

Chapter 25: The Armistice

The Signature—Planning GIANT II—Second Thoughts in Rome

Chapter 26: The Renunciation

“Innocuous”—The Announcement

Chapter 27: The Surrender

Badoglio’s Announcement—Flight of the King and High Command—Interpretations

Chapter 28: The Dissolution

German Reaction—The Battle for Rome—Dissolution of the Italian Armed Forces—Mussolini

Chapter 29: The Second Capitulation

Mission to Brindisi—The Long Terms—Malta—Epilogue


Appendix A: Composition of American Forces

Appendix B: The Quebec Memorandum

Appendix C: Short (Military) Terms in General Eisenhower’s Possession on 6 August 1943

Appendix D: Additional Conditions (Long Terms) Signed on 29 September 1943

Bibliographical Note




I. Central Europe and the Mediterranean (National Geographic Society Map)

II. The Battleground and the Enemy, 10 July 1943

III. The Final Landing Plan

IV. The Seventh Army Assault, 10 July 1943

V. Counterattack at Gela, 11 July 1943

VI. Seventh Army Advance, 11–12 July 1943

VII. The Seventh Army Changes Direction, 13–18 July 1943

VIII. The Seventh Army Clears Western Sicily, 19–23 July 1943

IX. The Race to Messina, 13–17 August 1943

Inline Maps

1. British Eighth Army Operations, 10 July 1943

2. The Seizure of Agrigento, 3rd Infantry Division, 14–17 July 1943

3. 15th Army Group Front, 23 July 1943

4. II Corps Advance, 24–31 July 1943

5. The Capture of Troina, 1st Infantry Division, 1–6 August 1943

6. The Fight for San Fratello, 3rd Infantry Division, 8 August 1943

7. 15th Army Group Gains, 24 July–10 August 1943

8. Brolo and the Naso Ridge, 3rd Infantry Division, 11–12 August 1943


President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill—Allied Leaders in the Sicilian Campaign—Churchill Addressing the U.S. Congress, May 1943—Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini—King Victor Emmanuel III—Generale d’Armata Ugo Cavallero—Feldmarschall Albert Kesselring and General der Infanterie Enno von Rintelen with Prince Umberto Di Savoia—Generale d’Armata Vittorio Ambrosio—Generale di Corpo d’Armata Giacomo Carboni—Count Dino Grandi—Count Galeazzo Ciano—General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery and Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., in Sicily—Lt. Gen. Sir Miles C. Dempsey—Lt. Gen. Sir Oliver Leese—Pantelleria Under Attack—Generale di Corpo d’Armata Comandante Designato D’Armata Mario Roatta—Generale d’Armata Alfredo Guzzoni—Generalleutnant Eberhard Rodt—Feldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen—Generalmajor Paul Conrath—Generalleutnant Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin—Col. Ernst Guenther Baade—General der Panzertruppen Hans Valentin Hube—Looking South From the Heights of Enna—Gela Beach—Lt. Gen. Omar N. Bradley and Maj. Gen. Terry de la Mesa Allen—Maj. Gen. Troy H. Middleton—Maj. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway—Maj. Gen. Lucian K. Truscott, Jr—Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy—Maj. Gen. Hugh J. Gaffey—Lt. Col. William O. Darby, Leader of Force X—Ponton Causeway From an LST to Shore—Landing Craft Massed in Bizerte Harbor for the Invasion of Sicily—Paratroopers Preparing to Emplane for Sicily—Glider Casualty—Ponte Dirillo Crossing Site—USS Boise Bombarding Coastal Defenses in Gela Landing Area—Licata and Beach Areas to the East—The Right Flank Beach at Licata—Highway 115—A Shore-to-Shore LCT at Licata Beach—Army Donkeys Wading Ashore at Licata—Bringing Up Supplies by Cart at Licata Beach—Knocked-Out Italian Railway Battery on Licata Mole—Enemy Defense Positions Along Coast Road East of Licata—Road Junction Y—Italian Prisoners Taken at Gela on D-day—The Coast Line West of Scoglitti—Landing Heavy Equipment at Scoglitti—Looking Down the Niscemi Road to Piano Lupo—American Troops in Gela on D Plus 1—Paratroopers Moving in on the Ridge at Abbio Priolo—American Ships Under Air Attack—Col. James M. Gavin in Biazzo Ridge Area—Wrecked German Tanks Dot Gela Plain—The Robert Rowan Exploding Off the Coast at Gela—Airborne Reinforcements in a C-47 Heading for Sicily—Paratroop Reinforcements Moving Through Vittoria—Ponte Olivo Airfield—Tank-Mounted Troops Rolling Through Palma—Canicatti Under Artillery Fire—Butera—Agrigento and the Surrounding High Ground—A DUKW Hauling Supplies in Porto Empedocle—Signal Corps Troops in Caltanissetta—Caltanissetta, Southwest Corner of the Enna Loop—General Ridgway and Staff Near Ribera—Mortar Squad Preparing To Attack Santo Stefano—The 2nd Armored Division Rolls Into Palermo—Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Keyes and Italian Generale di Brigata Giuseppe Molinero After Surrender of Palermo—Maresciallo d’Italia Pietro Badoglio—Southern Approach to Enna—Leonforte—Caronia Valley—Gangi, With Mount Etna in Distance—Coast Road Patrol Passing the Bombed-Out Castelbuono Railroad Station, 24 July 1943—Demolished Bridge Along Highway 117—Troina Ridge From the High Ground Near Cerami—Looking West From the Town of Troina—Goumiers Moving Toward Capizzi—Forward Observation Post Directing Fire on Troina—Artillery in Position Near Cerami—Half-Track Squeezing Through a Narrow Street in Cerami—Maj. Gen. Clarence R. Huebner and General Allen, 8 August 1943—Provisional Pack Train and Mounted Troops—Enemy Field of Fire Over Furiano River Crossing Site From San Fratello Ridge—Looking South Over the Furiano River Valley—Looking North Over the San Fratello—Cesaró Road—Highway 113—San Fratello Ridge—Sant’Agata From the Seaward Side of San Fratello Ridge—Treating a Wounded Soldier—San Marco D’Alunzio—Axis Second Echelon Leaders at Tarvis—Smoke Pall Covers Parts of Messina After Bombing Attack—Randazzo From the Southern Approach—Destroyed Bridge Along Highway 116—Americans and British Meet at Randazzo—Pillbox Overlooking Highway 113—Cape Orlando—Brolo Beach From the East—Enemy View of Landing Area at Brolo—Setting a Machine Gun Position on Monte Cipolla—Lt. Col. Lyle A. Bernard and His Radioman in Command Post Atop Monte Cipolla—The Objective, Messina—Troops Moving Around Blown-Out Section of Cliffside Road—The Bridge That Was “Hung in the Sky”—General Dwight D . Eisenhower and General Montgomery Observing the Effect of Artillery Fire on the Italian Mainland—Secret Emissaries to Lisbon—The Tiber River at Fumicino—The “Rescue” of Mussolini—Signing Surrender Document Aboard HMS Nelson.

Center of Military History, United States Army

Washington, D.C., 1963

United States Army In World War II

Stetson Conn, General Editor

Advisory Committee (As of 15 June 1963)

Fred C. Cole, Washington and Lee University

Maj. Gen. Hugh M. Exton, U.S. Continental Army Command

William R. Emerson, Yale University

Maj. Gen. Tom R. Stoughton, Industrial College of the Armed Forces

Earl Pomeroy, University of Oregon

Brig. Gen. Ward S. Ryan, U.S. Army War College

Theodore Ropp, Duke University

Col. Elias C. Townsend, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

Bell I. Wiley, Emory University

Col. Vincent J. Esposito, United States Military Academy

C. Vann Woodward, Yale University

Office of the Chief of Military History

Brig. Gen. Hal C. Pattison, Chief of Military History

Stetson Conn, Chief Historian

Lt. Col. Paul W. Phillips, Acting Chief, Histories Division

Lt. Col. James R. Hillard, Chief, Editorial and Graphics Division

Joseph R. Friedman, Editor in Chief.