Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb is based primarily, although not exclusively, upon the archival records created by the Manhattan Project from 1942 to 1948. Physical control of the bulk of these records is divided between two federal agencies – the National Archives and Records Service (NARS) and the Department of Energy (DOE). A useful guide to records in the custody of NARS is its Inventory of the Records of the Manhattan Engineer District, 1942–1948 (Washington, D.C., November 1956). As yet, DOE has not published a similar guide for its records, but each of its records centers maintains a catalog of its holdings. All footnote citations include sufficient data for locating Manhattan Project archival records in their respective depositories, indicated by a final two-, three-, or four-letter abbreviation that is fully identified in the Guide to Archival Collections. For reasons of brevity, in each chapter only the initial citation of a document gives the full reference data (MPC Rpt, 15 Dec 42, OCG Files, Gen Corresp, MP Files, Fldr 25, Tab B, MDR); subsequent citations are shortened references that contain the essential identifying elements, fol lowed by the appropriate depository code (MPC Rpt, 15 Dec 42, MDR).
The Manhattan District records at NARS fall into several major categories, of which three are of particular interest. Relating primarily to high-level policymaking matters are the records of General Groves’ Manhattan Project headquarters in Washington, D.C., designated the Office of the Commanding General Files; and those of Secretary Stimson’s office, designated the Harrison-Bundy Files (for George Harrison and Harvey Bundy, Stimson’s principal assistants). Relating primarily to the Army’s practices and problems as administrator of the Manhattan Project are the General Administrative Files.
The Office of the Commanding General Files are comprised of letters, memorandums, directives, diaries, reports, and similar materials that concern a variety of topics – including organization, research, production, stockpiling, weapon testing, domestic and international control, security, and foreign personnel. Of special value is the diary of Col. (later Brig. Gen.) James C. Marshall, the first district engineer, which records in detail the early months (June-October 1942) of the Army’s administration of the atomic bomb project, and the
aide-memoire notebook of Groves, which covers the activities of the commanding general from May 1943 to May 1945. This file group, however, does not include the similarly useful office diary (1942–46) of Groves, which is retired in NARS Record Group 200.
The Harrison-Bundy Files contain the letters, memorandums, and cables on atomic energy that were exchanged between the Secretary of War, his assistants, the Under Secretary of War, the Chief of Staff, various scientists, and appropriate representatives of the British and Canadian governments. In addition to correspondence, the files include minutes of the meetings of the Military Policy Committee, the Combined Policy Committee, and the Interim Committee; a documentary diplomatic history of the Manhattan Project prepared at the direction of General Groves; and various drafts of bills for domestic control of atomic energy drawn up by War Department personnel, copies of speeches, press releases, and reports to Congress.
The General Administrative Files consist primarily of correspondence between the District’s military and civilian personnel and the project’s scientists and engineers, as well as between individuals in the War Department and the various field offices of the District. In addition, these files contain copies of the District’s circular letters, memorandums, and bulletins, touching upon such matters as audits, civilian and military personnel, contracts and claims, costs, finance, insurance, labor relations, organization, equipment, safety, transportation, priorities, and property.
Other categories of Manhattan District records at NARS pertain to a number of disparate project activities. The Investigation Files include correspondence, memorandums, and proceedings related to personnel security and criminal investigations. The Fiscal and Audit Files contain useful information concerning operating costs at specific installations and data compiled for budget planning. The Foreign Intelligence Files are comprised of letters, messages, and reports of the District intelligence offices established in early 1944 in London, Paris, and Frankfurt.
Besides the formal collection of Manhattan District records, NARS also has other extensive materials pertinent to the wartime atomic bomb project, including Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), congressional, and Department of State records. Those from OSRD are essential for the history of the project before the Army’s entrance into it in 1942 and for the views of scientists, especially Vannevar Bush and James B. Conant, on such subjects as postwar planning for control of atomic energy. The hearings on enactment of postwar legislation by the Senate Special Committee on Atomic Energy in 1945–46, as well as other congressional records, include considerable historical information concerning development of the wartime project. State Department records contain important data on American policy relating to postwar international control measures.
At the time of the writing of this volume, most of the day-to-day administrative, construction, and operational records of the Manhattan
Project (such as contracts, construction completion reports, security and personnel records, and periodic reports on research and development programs, plant operations, and community functions) were located in the DOE facility at Germantown, Mary-land, and in the several DOE- or contractor-operated records centers at DOE field installations. Most of these records, however, will eventually be retired to the appropriate regional depositories in the NARS system.
By far the largest and most important collection of DOE records was in the Oak Ridge Operations Office. It contained not only the central mail and records files of the Manhattan District headquarters but also those of a number of other important subordinate elements of the project (for example, the Washington Liaison Office and the District’s area offices in New York City). Here also were the records on the design, construction, and operation of the electromagnetic, gaseous diffusion, and thermal diffusion plants, as well as the plutonium semiworks, and on the planning, building, and administration of the Oak Ridge community. Of special value were the construction completion reports of Stone and Webster, M. W. Kellogg and Kellex, Du Pont, and other major contractors, and the diary (1943–46) of Col. E. H. Marsden, executive officer in the district engineer’s office.
Records in the Hanford Operations Office documented the story of the plutonium production plant. Du Pont, the major contractor, produced voluminous historical reports on site development and plant and community construction and operations. The area engineer, Col. Franklin T. Matthias, recorded the Army’s role at Hanford in a detailed diary (1943–46).
The bulk of the source materials on scientific and technological developments in the atomic bomb program were in DOE’s major contractor-operated research centers. These include the Argonne National Laboratory at Lemont, Illinois, which has the files of the Metallurgical Project; the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, California; and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records of the SAM Laboratories at Columbia University were in the Oak Ridge Operations Office.
In the years since the end of World War II, the personal papers of many of the statesmen, military leaders, and scientists who played important roles in development of the atomic bomb have become available for historical research. Papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry L. Hopkins are in the Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park, New York, as well as some of those of Vannevar Bush pertaining to the atomic project. Harry S. Truman’s papers are in the Truman Library at Independence, Missouri. Those of Henry L. Stimson, including the indispensable personal diary (1939–45), are in Yale University’s Sterling Memorial Library in New Haven, Connecticut. Most of General Groves’ personal papers are in the National Archives, as are those also of Lyman J. Briggs, director of the National Bureau of Standards (1932–46). The Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress has the J. Robert Oppenheimer
papers and a substantial portion of those of Bush. Papers of Enrico Fermi and some of those of James Franck, the British scientist, are in the University of Chicago Library and those of Ernest 0. Lawrence are in the Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley. The voluminous diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King, the Canadian political leader, are in NARS and contain many entries concerning wartime atomic energy development.
There are several manuscript histories that cover all or important aspects of the atomic bomb project. The most extensive and comprehensive is the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project’s “Manhattan District History,” prepared at the direction of General Groves and under the general editorship of Gavin Hadden, a longtime civil employee of the Corps of Engineers. Conceived as the official history of the Army’s role in the project, it consists of historical narratives prepared by each of the programs and activities of the Manhattan Project in accordance with a general plan of organization and list of topics to be treated. Many of the narratives are amply supplemented with appropriate supporting documents, bibliographies, charts, statistical tables, engineering drawings, maps, and photographs. The “History” is arranged in some thirty-six volumes grouped in eight books, with detailed general indices to names of persons, agencies, and subjects. Copies of the “History” are located in NARS and in DOE’s Germantown facility. In 1962, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory published an unclassified version of a major portion of that part of the “History” that covered its activities from 1943 to 1947 (Manhattan District History: Project V, The Los Alamos Project, LAMS-2532, 2 vols.). Extensive extracts from the “History” also are published in Anthony Cave Brown and Charles B. MacDonald, eds., The Secret History of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Dial Press/James Wade, 1977).
Other manuscript historical accounts cover specific aspects of the project. On the international activities of the atomic program, there is the “Diplomatic History of the Manhattan Project,” compiled by members of General Groves’ staff. Brief narrative sections, intended to justify involvement of Manhattan personnel in the international field, are supported by a useful selection of pertinent documents. Copies are held by DOE, the State Department, and NARS (in the Harrison-Bundy Files).
Several manuscript histories provide information on the extensive support that the Manhattan Project received from other elements of the Army’s wartime staff. In this category are Richard M. Leighton’s “History of the Control Division, ASF, 1942–1945” (in two volumes); several manuscript histories pertinent to military intelligence activities, including Bruce W. Bidwell’s “History of the Military Intelligence Division, Department of the Army General Staff’ (Part 5), Capt. C. J. Bernardo’s “Counterintelligence Corps History and Mission in World War II,” the Army Service Forces’ “History of the
Intelligence Division” (in four volumes), and the Office of the Provost Marshal General’s “The Loyalty Investigations Program”; and the Army Service Forces’ documentary “History of the Research and Development Division, 1 July 1940–1 July 1945, with Supplement to 31 December 1945” (in three volumes). Also, a section in Vernon E. Davis’s “Organizational Development: Development of the JCS Committee Structure” (Volume 2) describes how the atomic program was coordinated with the other armed services. Copies of all these manuscript histories are in NARS.
Some of the many hundreds of firms that were under contract to the Manhattan Project prepared accounts of their activities that are more comprehensive and detailed than the usual contractor’s completion report. Of considerable importance are those of the Du Pont Company on the design and construction of the Clinton semiworks and on the building and operation of the Hanford Engineer Works. Useful, too, are the histories produced by Roane-Anderson concerning its management of the town of Oak Ridge and of passenger transportation at the Clinton Engineer Works. Copies of contractor histories are in the appropriate DOE field records centers.
Interviews and Correspondence
Recollectionof participants recorded in interviews and correspondence gave the author information that often supplemented the official archival records. Except where otherwise indicated, copies of interview notes and correspondence with the following persons are on file in the U.S. Army Center of Military History: Col. Keith F. Adamson; Col. Whitney Ash-bridge; Col. Maurice E. Barker; James Phinney Baxter 3rd; Maj. Samuel S. Baxter; Lt. Col. Benjamin R. Bierer; Lt. Col. Robert C. Blair; Harvey H. Bundy (in Columbia University Oral History Collection); Elkin Burckhardt; Charles W. Campbell; Lt. Gen. Frederick J. Clarke (in Corps of Engineers, Engineer Memoirs: Interviews With Lieutenant General Frederick J. Clarke); Karl P. Cohen; Winston Dabney; Col. Peer de Silva; Brig. Gen. John H. Dudley; Maj. Harold A. Fidler; Col. Mark C. Fox; F. A. Gibson; Lt. Gen. Leslie R. Groves; Lt. Gen. Richard H. Groves; Edith E. Hagg; Norman Hilberry; F. E. Jochen; Col. Elmer E. Kirkpatrick, Jr.; Col. Harry A. Kuhn; Brig. Gen. James C. Marshall; Col. Franklin I. Matthias; Pat McAndrew; Maj. William R. McCauley, Jr.; Francis McHale; Maj. John H. McKinley; Edwin M. McMillan; Duncan McRae; Capt. William J. Morrell; IA. Col. Edgar J. Murphy; John Musser; S. H. Nelson; Charles E. Normand; Jean O’Leary; Harry Parker; David Piccoli; Maj. Gen. William N. Porter; Robert V. Porton; W. B. Reynolds; Frederick J. Roach; Brig. Gen. Jacquard H. Rothschild; Alexander Sachs; Brig. Gen. Haig Shekerjian; S. Sobol; Henry L. Stimson (in Columbia University Oral History Collection); N. D. Sturgis; Lt. Gen. Wilhelm D. Styer; Edna Summerfield; Gerold H. Tenney; Hanford Thayer; Brig. Gen. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. (in Columbia University Oral History Collection); Lt. Col.
James E. Travis; Harry S. Truman; Col. Gerald R. Tyler; U. Col. Charles Vanden Buick; Raymond K. Wakerling; and T. Cortland Williams.
U.S. Government Publications: Primary Materials
In the years since the end of World War II, a substantial amount of primary source material relating to development and employment of atomic energy has become available in publications of federal agencies. The public pronouncements of President Harry S. Truman on atomic energy are conveniently assembled in Harry S. Truman: Containing the Public Messages, Speeches, and Statements of the President, 1945 and 1946, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961–62). Comprehensive coverage of international aspects up to the beginning of 1947 is provided in the Department of State’s carefully edited Foreign Relations of the United States, Diplomatic Papers, series. Pertinent are The Conference of Berlin (The Potsdam. Conference), 1945, 2 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960) and General: The United Nations, 1946, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972). On the preparation of domestic legislation and the question of military versus civilian control, the United States Senate has published its hearings held in late 1945 and early 1946: U.S. Congress, Senate, Special Committee on Atomic Energy, Atomic Energy: Hearings on S. Res. 179, 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd Sess., 27 November 1945–15 February 1946 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945–46), and Atomic Energy: Hearings on S. 1717, 79th Cong., 2nd Sess., 22 January-8 April 1946 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946).
In 1954, the United States Atomic Energy Commission published the transcript of the hearing that its personnel security board conducted into the matter of continuing J. Robert Oppenheimer’s security clearance. Besides data on security, the testimony recorded in this transcript, much of it given by participants in the Manhattan Project, provides extensive historical information on many other aspects of the World War II atomic energy program. A detailed record of research in nuclear technology achieved under government contracts during World War II is provided in the multi-volumed National Nuclear Energy Series, prepared under the sponsorship of the Manhattan District and its successor civilian agencies, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Energy Research and Development Agency, and the Department of Energy. There are some one hundred volumes in the series, arranged in ten divisions.
The effects of the atomic bombing of Japan are covered in detail in several of the hundreds of reports prepared by the United States Strategic
Bombing Survey on the effects of aerial attacks in Europe and the Pacific in World War II. These reports are organized into two broad categories, Europe and the Pacific, and numbered consecutively within each category. Four reports within the Pacific category are concerned with the atomic bombing of Japan. Report 3, The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, issued as an unclassified publication in mid-1946, briefly summarizes all aspects in layman’s terms. Report 13, The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Health and Medical Services in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, also unclassified and published in March 1947, provides detailed data on the medical consequences. Report 92, The Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, issued in May 1947, and Report 93, The Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, issued in June 1947, each in three volumes, were originally classified secret (subsequently downgraded) and furnish, in great detail, data on the physical effects of the atomic bombings. All of these reports were published by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C.
The Manhattan District also issued the results of its own survey, “The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,” June 1946, and “Photographs of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,” June 1946.
The official account of Operation CROSSROADS, the atomic bomb tests conducted by U.S. Joint Task Force One at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in July 1946, is contained in its historical report Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker (Operation Crossroads), 3 vols. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Task Force One, 1947).
US. Government Publications: Secondary Accounts
Among the most useful of secondary accounts on the development of atomic energy and related activities in World War II are those in historical series officially sponsored by the U.S. armed forces and by various government agencies. The author found the following especially valuable.
An indispensable source on the wartime project, and a classic in the literature dealing with the development of atomic energy, is the War Department’s official report that was published shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.
Smyth, H. D. A General Account of the Development of Methods of Using Atomic Energy for Military Purposes Under the Auspices of the United’ States Government, 1940–1945. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945.
In September 1945, Professor Smyth’s institution, Princeton University, issued a slightly modified version of this account, with the addition of an index and photographs.
Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb Under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940–1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945.
Department of the Army
Each of the following volumes in the U.S. Army in World War II series provides important information on some historical aspect of the wartime Army that related to the Manhattan Project.
Brophy, Leo P., and Fisher, George J. B. The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Cline, Ray S. Washington Command Post: The Operations Division. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1951.
Coll, Blanche D.; Keith, Jean E.; and Rosenthal, Herbert H. The Corps of Engineers: Troops and Equipment. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1958.
Dziuban, Stanley W. Military Relations Between the United States and Canada, 1939–1945. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Fairchild, Byron, and Grossman, Jonathan. The Army and Industrial Manpower. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Fine, Lenore, and Remington, Jesse A. The Corps of Engineers: Construction in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.
Green, Constance McLaughlin; Thomson, Harry C.; and Roots, Peter C. The Ordnance Department: Planning Munitions for War. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1955.
Matloff, Maurice. Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943–1944. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Millett, John D. The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954.
Palmer, Robert R.; Wiley, Bell I.; and Keast, William R. The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
Smith, R. Elberton. The Army and Economic Mobilization. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Thompson, George Raynor; Harris, Dixie R.; Oakes, Pauline M.; and Terrett, Dulany. The Signal Corps: The Test. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1957.
Treadwell, Mattie E. The Women’s Army Corps. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954.
Watson, Mark S. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950.
In the World War II series Medical Department, United States Army, the following volumes provide data relating to the organization and activities of the medical element in the Manhattan Project.
Armfield, Blanche B. Organization and Administration in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963.
McMinn, John H., and Levin, Max. Personnel in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963.
Warren, Stafford L. “The Role of Radiology in the Development of the Atomic Bomb.” Radiology in World War II. Edited by Kenneth D. A. Allen. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1966.
Department of the Navy
In the Navy’s semiofficial series History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, the story of the ill-fated Indianapolis, which carried atomic bomb parts to Tinian, and the achievement of victory and peace in the Pacific are dealt with in the following volume.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. Vol. 14. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1960.
Army Air Forces
Two volumes in The Army Air Forces in World War II series, edited by Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, include materials pertinent to that arm’s participation in the atomic bombing of Japan.
Europe: Argument to V-E Day, January 1944 to May 1945. Vol. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki, June 1944 to August 1945. Vol. 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.
The special military unit that carried out the atomic bombing of Japan is depicted in the following volume.
509th Pictorial Album: Written and Published by and for the Members of the 509th Composite Group, Tinian, 1945. Edited by Capt. Jerome J. Ossip. Chicago: Rogers Printing Co., 1946.
Office of Scientific Research and Development
Several volumes in the historical series Science in World War II contain substantial sections on atomic energy, with emphasis on the OSRD’s role.
Baxter 3rd, James Phinney. Scientists Against Time. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1946.
Stewart, Irvin. Organizing Scientific Research for War: The Administrative History of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1948.
Thiesmeyer, Lincoln R., and Burchard, John E. Combat Scientists. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1947.
Department of Energy
Hewlett, Richard G., and Anderson, Oscar E., Jr. The New World, 1939–1946. Vol. 1. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962. This volume, the first in the Department of Energy’s history of the former Atomic Energy Commission, comprises a detailed narrative of atomic developments from 1939 through 1946, with emphasis on the scientific aspects.
––––, and Duncan, Francis. Atomic Shield, 1947–1952. Vol. 2. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1969.
National Bureau of Standards
Cochrane, Rexmond C. Measures for Progress: A History of the Bureau of Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1966.
Bureau of the Budget
Bureau of the Budget. The United States at War: Development and Administration of the War Program by the Federal Government. Washington, D.C.: Committee of Records of War Administration No. 1, War Records Section, Bureau of the Budget, 1946. This is the first of the bureau’s historical reports on administration in World War II.
Civilian Production Administration
Civilian Production Administration, Bureau of Demobilization. Industrial Mobilization for War: History of the War Production Board and Predecessor Agencies, 1940–1945, Program and Administration. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947. This is the first volume in a projected history of the War Production Board.
Foreign Government Publications
Foreign governments have sponsored a number of official publications about atomic energy developments in World War II. The author found the following useful in preparing his account of the Manhattan Project.
Crowther, J. G., and Whiddington, R. Science at War. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1947.
Gowing, Margaret. Britain and Atomic Energy, 1939–1945. London: Macmillan and Co., St. Martin’s Press, 1964. This volume is the official history of the British wartime atomic energy program.
––––, Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, 1945–1952. 2 vols. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974. This work, written with the assistance of Lora Arnold, is the continuation of the official history of the British atomic energy program.
Hall, H. Duncan, and Wrigley, C. C. Studies of Overseas Supply. History of the Second World War. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1956. J. D. Scott wrote one of the chapters in this volume.
The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ed. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. Translated by Eisei Ishikawa and David L. Swain. New York: Basic Books, 1981. This report, commissioned by the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was compiled by a committee of thirty-four Japanese specialists, with the aim of achieving as definitive an account as possible of the nature and extent of the damage wrought by the atomic bombings of 6 and 9 August 1945.
Office of Civil Defense, Office of the Secretary of War (Japan), and Technical Management Office, U.S. Naval Radio. Analysis of Japanese Nuclear Casualty Data. Compiled by L. Wayne Davis et al. Albuquerque, N.Mex: Dikewood Corp., April 1966.
Personal Accounts, Memoirs, and Collected. Papers
Of the many personal accounts, memoirs, and collected papers of participants in the Manhattan Project or in events related to the development and employment of the atomic bomb, the author has found the following volumes to be most useful.
Arnold, H. H. Global Mission. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949.
Bush, Vannevar. Pieces of the Action. New York: William Morrow, 1970.
Compton, Arthur Holly, Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.
Conant, James Bryant. My Several Lives: Memoirs of a Social Inventor. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.
Fermi, Enrico. United States, 1939–1954. The Collected Papers of Enrico Fermi. Edited by Emilio Segre et al. Vol. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Fermi, Laura. Atoms in the Family: My Life With Enrico Fermi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
Goldschmidt, Bertrand. The Atomic Adventure: Its Political and Technical Aspects. Translated from the French by Peter Beer. Oxford, England, and New York: Pergamon Press and Macmillan Co., 1964.
Goudsmit, Samuel A. Alsos. New York: Henry Schuman, 1947.
Groves, Leslie R. Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1962.
Leahy, William D. I Was There. New York: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1950.
Ley, Willy, ed. and trans. Otto Hahn: A Scientific Autobiography. New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
Lilienthal, David E. The Journals of David E. Lilienthal. 5 vols. New York: Harper and Row, 1964. Volumes 1 and 2, covering the years from 1939 to 1950, include references pertinent to the Manhattan Project.
MacArthur, Douglas. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964.
Oppenheimer, J. Robert. Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections. Edited by Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Pash, Boris T. The ALSOS Mission. New York: Award House, 1969.
Pickersgill, J. W. The Mackenzie King Record, 1939–1944. Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1960.
––––, and Forster, D. F., The Mackenzie King Record, 1944–1948. Vols. 2–4. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968–70. The above four volumes comprise the substantially edited diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King.
Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich – Memoirs. Translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Macmillan Co., 1969.
Stimson, Henry L., and Bundy, McGeorge. On Active Service in Peace and War. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1947.
Strauss, Lewis L. Men and Decisions. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1962.
Szilard, Leo. “Reminiscences.” In The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930–1960. Perspectives in American History. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, Harvard University Press, 1968.
Teller, Edward, and Brown, Allen. The Legacy of Hiroshima. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1962.
Tibbets, Paul W., Jr. The Tibbets Story. New York: Stein and Day, 1978.
Truman, Harry S. Memoirs. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1955–56.
Most of the biographical studies of participants in the World War II atomic energy program are of scientists or political figures. The author found that the following volumes provide some insight into the Army’s role in the program.
Allison, Samuel K. “Arthur Holly Compton.” In National Academy of Sciences: Biographical Memoirs. Vol. 38 (pp. 81-110). New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.
Baker, Liva. Felix Frankfurter. New York: Coward-McCann, 1969.
Bernstein, Jeremy. Hans Bethe: Prophet of Energy. Cambridge, Mass.: Basic Books, 1980.
Biquard, Pierre. Frederic Joliot-Curie: The Man and His Theories. New York: Paul S. Eriksson, 1965.
Blumberg, Stanley A., and Owens, Gwinn. Energy and Conflict: The Life and Times of Edward Teller. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1976.
Childs, Herbert. An American Genius: The Life and Times of Ernest Orlando Lawrence. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1968.
Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: World Publishing Co., 1971.
––––, Tizard. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1965.
Davis, Nuel P. Lawrence and Oppenheimer. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.
Fermi. Laura. Illustrious Immigrants: The Intellectual Migration From Europe, 1930–1941. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Goodchild, Peter J. J. Robert Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1981.
Harrod, R. F. The Prof: A Personal Memoir of Lord Cherwell. London: Macmillan and Co., 1959.
Huie, William Bradford. The Hiroshima Pilot: The Case of Major Claude Eatherly. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1964.
Kunetka, James W. Oppenheimer: The Years of Risk. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Latil, Pierre de. Enrico Fermi: The Man and his Theories. New York: Paul S. Eriksson, 1966.
Libby, Leona Marshall. The Uranium People. New York: Crane, Russak, 1979.
Michelmore, Peter. The Swift Years: The Robert Oppenheimer Story. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1969.
Moore, Ruth. Niels Bohr: The Man, His Science, and the World They Changed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966.
Moorehead, Alan. The Traitors: The Double Life of Fuchs, Pontecorvo, and Nunn May. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1952.
Morison, Elting E. Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1960.
Rozental, S., ed. Niels Bohr: His Life and Work as Seen by Friends and Colleagues. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., 1967.
Rouze, Michel. Robert Oppenheimer: The Man and His Theories. New York: Paul S. Eriksson, 1965.
Segre, Emilio. Enrico Fermi, Physicist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Ulam, Stanislav; Kuhn, H. W.; Tucker, A. W.; and Shannon, Claude E. “John von Neumann, 1903–1957.” In The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930–1960. Perspectives in American History. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, Harvard University Press, 1968.
Books on Other Aspects
Alexander, Frederic C., Jr. History of Sandia Corporation Through Fiscal Year 1963. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia Corp., 1963.
Bar-Zohar, Michel. The Hunt for German Scientists. Translated by Len Ortzen from the French La Chasse aux Savants allemands. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967.
Batchelder, Robert C. The Irreversible Decision, 1939–1950. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962.
Bentwich, Norman. The Rescue and Achievement of Displaced Scholars and Scientists, 1933–1952. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1953.
Bernstein, Barton J., ed. The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues. Critical Issues in American History. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1976.
Beyerchen, Alan D. Scientists Under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Brodie, Bernard and Fawn. From Crossbow to H-Bomb. Rev. and enl. cd. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1973.
Butow, Robert J. C. Japan ‘s Decision To Surrender. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1954.
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